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Angela Devereux-Fitzgerald, Rachael Powell and David P. French

older adults. Actual ward deprivation figures ranged from 38.5% to 54.8% of older adults living in poverty, compared with the English national average of 18.1% ( DCLG, 2011 ). Deprivation figures were based on factors including income, crime risk, access to local amenities, and living environment ( DCLG

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Haichun Sun and Tan Zhang

, and these connections are especially meaningful for students in urban schools or high-poverty schools, where students may face many challenges in their community ( Ennis, 2000 ). When students fail to connect themselves to the learning community or perceive the relevance and values of their

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Joshua Woods

, Evenson, McGinn, & Brines, 2008 ; Wen, Zhang, Harris, Holt, & Croft, 2013 ; Wolch, Wilson, & Fehrenbach, 2005 ). Most of these studies found that as the poverty of neighborhoods increases, the distance from these neighborhoods to parks and green spaces increases. Neighborhoods with higher percentages of

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Pierre Lepage, Gordon A. Bloom and William R. Falcão

. Coombs , P.H. , & Ahmed , M. ( 1974 ). Attacking rural poverty: How nonformal education can help . Baltimore, MD : Johns Hopkins University Press . Côté , J. , Young , B.W. , North , J. , & Duffy , P. ( 2007

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Lindsey M. Russo, Megan W. Harvey, Penelope Pekow and Lisa Chasan-Taber

2006 Massachusetts insurance reform law provided free health care insurance for residents earning <150% of the federal poverty level. We considered education level and age in multivariable models, but only age qualified as an important covariate. We relied on a self-reported measure of physical

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Aquasia A. Shaw, Merry Moiseichik, Heather Blunt-Vinti and Sarah Stokowski

stereotypes of African-American athletes as poverty-stricken individuals being exploited on the premise of their athletic abilities by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and its membered PWI through commercialism. ( Smith, Obeng, & Sales, 2015 , p. 407) For example, Cooper and Hawkins ( 2014

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Charles Macaulay, Joseph Cooper and Shaun Dougherty

American society demonstrated through stories of overcoming poverty, hardship, and life obstacles to achieve great success. However, there are a few scholars ( Allison, Davis, & Barranco, 2018 ; Durbow & Adams, 2012 ; Farrey, 2017 ) who have recently published research countering these narratives. It

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Danielle Peers

—however, normalization is not what determines the activity’s, or participant’s, value. Importantly, increased life chances can also mean an ethical commitment to decreasing the social structures that diminish some people’s chance of survival and opportunities for flourishing: structures like poverty, abuse, exclusion

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Kathryn Henne and Madeleine Pape

racialized moral discourse circulating in the track-and-field community that constructs women of Color—and from African nations in particular—as suspect not only in terms of the perceived greater likelihood of intersex variation, but also in terms of their desperation to escape poverty, their vulnerability

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Nisha Botchwey, Myron F. Floyd, Keshia Pollack Porter, Carmen L. Cutter, Chad Spoon, Tom L. Schmid, Terry L. Conway, J. Aaron Hipp, Anna J. Kim, M. Renee Umstattd Meyer, Amanda L. Walker, Tina J. Kauh and Jim F. Sallis

better in school, likely due to multiple benefits on brain structure and function. 9 – 11 This evidence highlights the need to promote healthy lifestyles and opportunities for safe and age-appropriate PA for all children. Communities of color, communities with high poverty levels, and communities with