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Inge Claringbould and Annelies Knoppers

The gender ratio of those in positions of leadership continues to be skewed toward a male majority. The purpose of this study is to explore how practices of gender may contribute to the lack of significant change in this skewed ratio in (sport) organizations. We situate our study within Martin’s (2003, 2006) notion of practices of gender. We conducted interviews with 15 sport journalists and 32 members of boards of governance of sport organizations to investigate how the skewed gender ratio was maintained and challenged by paradoxical practices of gender. The results show that practices of gender neutrality, normalcy and passivity strengthened and maintained the current gender skewness. We also give examples of disruptive practices that contributed to the undoing of gender in these organizations.

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Stephen Silverman

This study investigated relationships between two groups of process variables, student engagement and practice trials, and achievement. The effect of initial skill level and class membership in these relationships was also examined. Students (N = 57 after attrition) were pretested, instructed, and posttested on a swimming skill. The two instructional periods were videotaped and coded for motor engagement, cognitive engagement, and the quantity, type, and difficulty level of practice trials. Motor and cognitive engagement were not significant predictors of achievement for the entire sample. Whole-appropriate practice trials were positive predictors of achievement and whole-inappropriate practice trials were negative predictors of achievement. A variety of significant relationships were found when data were analyzed by skill level and class. The data indicate that engagement paradigms may extend to psychomotor skill learning and that the type of practice trials are more important than simple engaged time.

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G. Linda Rikard

The purpose was to describe the differences in practice success of high- and low-skilled students to varied instructional tasks and feedback of two physical education teachers. Four to five lessons on striking with implements were presented, and feedback was consistently individual and specific. Subjects were four high-skilled and four low-skilled fourth graders randomly selected from two intact physical education classes. The teacher variable studied was the amount and kind of teacher feedback given to subjects during practice. Student variables included: (a) the success frequencies of practice in response to instructional tasks, and (b) practice success frequencies achieved immediately after receiving teacher feedback. Results showed that successful task engagement was 70% for low-skilled students and 86% for high-skilled students in response to instructional tasks. After receiving teacher feedback, low-skilled students increased their practice success to 75% (5% increase); high-skilled students declined to 84% (2% decrease).

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Zachary Zenko and Panteleimon Ekkekakis

scoring details. Ultimately, this review demonstrates that the rationale for choosing one measure over another is typically unreported, and crucial decisions regarding procedural details and scoring methods are often unexplained. These practices increase the challenge of investigating automatic

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Jennifer McConnell-Nzunga, Katie A. Weatherson, Louise Masse, Valerie Carson, Guy Faulkner, Erica Lau, Heather McKay, Viviene Temple, Luke Wolfenden and Patti J. Naylor

PA behaviours. 3 Child care settings can provide opportunities for PA through their physical environments, policies, and practices 4 and their broad reach. In 2011, 62% of Canadian parents reported using some type of child care for their 3-year-old children, 64% for 4-year-old children, and 52% for

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Craig A. Williams

In my 2015 editorial, I selected two research publications with a focus on an applied sports sciences perspective. This year I have chosen to focus on two publications from a methodological viewpoint, highlighting the importance of laboratory procedures and extraction of data through a systematic review respectively. The first publication by Leites and colleagues (J Appl Physiol) addresses questions in relation to thermoregulation and carbohydrate metabolism in young people. This topic is difficult to conduct due to additional ethical and safety concerns due to exercising in the heat. Nonetheless, there are important basic science questions to be answered. Using a range of measurement techniques including rectal thermometry, 13C-enriched carbohydrate isotopes and procedures to standardize the heat stress equally between a group of men and boys, this project demonstrates an exemplary range of experimental skills. In my second selected paper by Lesinski et al., (Brit J Sports Med), both a systematic review and a meta-analyses were conducted to investigate the dose-response relationships of resistance training on physical performance in youth athletes. As the requirement for more evidence based practice is demanded, the move away from a narrative review to a more methodological and rigorous approach is to be encouraged. It is, in my opinion, a skill that we should be encouraging all our early career pediatric researchers to learn from the outset, the outcome of which can only make our discipline stronger.

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David Bishop, Angus Burnett, Damian Farrow, Tim Gabbett and Robert Newton

As sports scientists, we claim to make a significant contribution to the body of knowledge that influences athletic practice and performance. Is this the reality? At the inaugural congress of the Australian Association for Exercise and Sports Science, a panel of well-credentialed academic experts with experience in the applied environment debated the question, Does sports-science research influence practice? The first task was to define “sports-science research,” and it was generally agreed that it is concerned with providing evidence that improves sports performance. When practices are equally effective, sports scientists also have a role in identifying practices that are safer, more time efficient, and more enjoyable. There were varying views on the need for sports-science research to be immediately relevant to coaches or athletes. Most agreed on the importance of communicating the results of sports-science research, not only to the academic community but also to coaches and athletes, and the need to encourage both short- and long-term research. The panelists then listed examples of sports-science research that they believe have influenced practice, as well as strategies to ensure that sports-science research better influences practice.

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Karen E. French, Judith E. Rink, Linda Rikard, Amys Mays, Susan Lynn and Peter Werner

The purpose was to compare the effectiveness of practice progressions on learning the volleyball serve and overhead set. Ninth-grade students were randomly assigned to three groups. Each group practiced the volleyball serve and set for 60 trials over 6 days. The progression group practiced four levels of difficulty of the set and serve. The criterion group began practice at the beginning level of difficulty and had to achieve an 80% success rate before practicing at a more advanced level. The third group practiced the AAHPERD volleyball skill tests for the serve and set for all 60 trials. At the end of practice, all subjects were posttested using these AAHPERD tests. The results indicated the progression and criterion groups had higher posttest scores than the third group. Profiles of the success rates across acquisition for each group showed that students in the third group and low-skilled students in the progression and criterion groups did not improve during practice. Students with some initial skill in the progression and criterion groups exhibited high success rates for acquisition and improvement. These results indicate that sequencing practice in progressive levels of difficulty enhances retention when task difficulty is appropriate for the learner. However, no condition was effective when task difficulty was inappropriate for the learner.

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Harry E. Routledge, Stuart Graham, Rocco Di Michele, Darren Burgess, Robert M. Erskine, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton

professional clubs. However, the present data clearly illustrate the periodization of training load across a weekly training microcycle. In accordance with the evidence of training load periodization, our data also highlight practices of nutritional periodization, whereby a greater amount of CHO (5 g/kg) was

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Mary Lou Veal

Noting that current research has revealed a substantial gap between pupil assessment theory and the practices of secondary teachers, this study examined not only what teachers are doing, but also why they select and use certain practices. Assessment was observed in at least three classes for each of 13 selected secondary teachers, and descriptions of specific assessment practices were obtained through formal and informal interviews. School documents and teacher-developed assessment instruments were also examined in order to add depth to descriptions. The bulk of the data consisted of field notes from interviews and observations, which were analyzed qualitatively. Frequency indices were also prepared to allow easier viewing of patterns in the data. Ninety specific assessment practices were identified. Of the 90 total instances, 16% were preassessment, 30% were formative assessment, and 54% were summative assessment. Analysis of emergent themes indicated that teachers’ assessment practices were influenced by the effort and improvement of their students, and that teachers individualized their assessments. Teachers also identified conditions under which they used assessment including the determination of the purpose or utility of each technique as well as efficiency of administration.