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Simone Dohle, Brian Wansink and Lorena Zehnder


The goal of this qualitative study is to identify common beliefs and behaviors related to exercise and diet.


Data were collected in focus group discussions with regular exercisers who were physically active between 1 and 5 h per week. Exercise objectives, beliefs and behaviors regarding food intake before, during, and after exercise, consumption of sport supplements, and dietary patterns on sedentary days were explored. All focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach.


Participants reported that they reward themselves for being active by consuming food. Other exercisers had specific beliefs about dietary needs and how to compensate for exercise-induced losses along with exercise-related food likes and dislikes. The participants’ food intake also depended on their personal exercise objectives, such as the goal of performing well in competitions. External and physiological factors also played a role in determining participants’ dietary patterns.


Results of this study show that exercising and dietary patterns are closely intertwined. In addition, we articulate new hypotheses and outline a research agenda that can help improve how regular exercisers eat.

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Ryan Sappington and Kathryn Longshore

The field of applied sport psychology has traditionally grounded its performance enhancement techniques in the cognitive-behavioral elements of psychological skills training. These interventions typically advocate for controlling one’s cognitive and emotional processes during performance. Mindfulness-based approaches, on the other hand, have recently been introduced and employed more frequently in an effort to encourage athletes to adopt a nonjudgmental acceptance of all thoughts and emotions. Like many applied interventions in sport psychology, however, the body of literature supporting the efficacy of mindfulness-based approaches for performance enhancement is limited, and few efforts have been made to draw evidence-based conclusions from the existing research. The current paper had the purpose of systematically reviewing research on mindfulness-based interventions with athletes to assess (a) the efficacy of these approaches in enhancing sport performance and (b) the methodological quality of research conducted thus far. A comprehensive search of relevant databases, including peer-reviewed and gray literature, yielded 19 total trials (six case studies, two qualitative studies, seven nonrandomized trials, and four randomized trials) in accordance with the inclusion criteria. An assessment tool was used to score studies on the quality of research methodology. While a review of this literature yielded preliminary support for the efficacy of mindfulness-based performance enhancement strategies, the body of research also shows a need for more methodologically rigorous trials.

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Diane M. Culver, Wade Gilbert and Andrew Sparkes

A follow-up of the 1990s review of qualitative research articles published in three North American sport psychology journals (Culver, Gilbert, & Trudel, 2003) was conducted for the years 2000–2009. Of the 1,324 articles published, 631 were data-based and 183 of these used qualitative data collection techniques; an increase from 17.3% for the 1990s to 29.0% for this last decade. Of these, 31.1% employed mixed methods compared with 38.1% in the 1990s. Interviews were used in 143 of the 183 qualitative studies and reliability test reporting increased from 45.2% to 82.2%. Authors using exclusively quotations to present their results doubled from 17.9% to 39.9%. Only 13.7% of the authors took an epistemological stance, while 26.2% stated their methodological approach. We conclude that positivist/postpositivist approaches appear to maintain a predominant position in sport psychology research. Awareness of the importance of being clear about epistemology and methodology should be a goal for all researchers.

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Anne Tjønndal

The marginalization and exclusion of women in boxing has emerged as a severe global problem, threatening women’s democratic right to equal participation in sport. The following article is based on a qualitative study of women’s lived experiences as participants in boxing, either as coaches or as athletes. My theoretical point of departure is derived from an understanding of gender as a cultural code. The data material consists of interviews with Norwegian female boxing coaches and female boxers. The analysis in this study suggests that women, both inside and outside of the ring, are facing several obstacles to overcome and barriers to break. For instance, both female coaches and boxers struggle to be taken seriously in their sporting practices. For women coaches, a central challenge is being accepted and respected as “real” and capable coaches with valuable knowledge and experience in a male dominated sport. Women boxers on the other hand, are often subjected to unequal power relations with older male coaches. As expressed by the interviewed boxers, some men take advantage of these gendered power relations in terms of practices of exclusion, discrimination, and in some cases, sexual abuse.

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Stephanie M. Mazerolle, Thomas G. Bowman and Carrie Fister


Athletic training majors are at risk for experiencing elevated stress, frustrations, and eventual burnout. Evidence suggests that stressors can accumulate over time, but academic standing can plausibly influence experiences with stress.


Gain information related to coping strategies used by athletic training majors to manage their stress and frustrations to prevent burnout.


Online qualitative study.


Athletic training programs.

Patients or Other Participants:

10 sophomores, 9 juniors, and 4 seniors completed the online questionnaire. The athletic training majors were recruited from four institutions with accredited programs.

Data Collection and Analysis:

Data were collected in March 2013 via asynchronous online interviewing via QuestionPro. All participants responded to the same set of 25 questions and data were analyzed following a general inductive approach. The questionnaire was reviewed by a peer and piloted. Multiple analyst coding was completed.


We identified an overarching theme of personal coping strategies, which athletic training majors used to manage and cope with their stressors. These strategies were simply considered outside the confines of the athletic training program itself, and included outside support networks, physical outlets, and time management skills. We acknowledged athletic training majors also employed stress-relieving strategies that were facilitated within or by the athletic training program itself. Specifically, our participants noted that they received support from peer and programmatic personnel (preceptors, faculty).


Athletic training majors must develop personal strategies that can help them best alleviate their stressors, but also must have strong support in place especially within their athletic training programs. We recommend that athletic training majors reflect upon what strategies work best for them and to find hobbies and personal interests that help them de-stress and rejuvenate from their demanding workloads.

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Karl Spiteri, David Broom, Amira Hassan Bekhet, John Xerri de Caro, Bob Laventure and Kate Grafton

:// ). Inclusion Criteria The inclusion criteria adapted from Nightingale ( 2009 ) are as follows: • Type of participants: people (50–70 years) living in the community. • Type of study: qualitative and quantitative research and mixed methods. ○ Qualitative studies that presented quotes from

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Pilar Lavielle Sotomayor, Gerardo Huitron Bravo, Analí López Fernández and Juan Talavera Piña

: Qualitative methodology was used together with quantitative surveys to improve the quality and validity of the data. 21 , 22 The qualitative phase of the study was designed to understand physicians’ perceptions of PAP. Based on the qualitative study, a questionnaire with culturally relevant items was

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Laura J. McGowan, Rachael Powell and David P. French

’ knowledge, only three qualitative studies have been published concerning the development of interventions to reduce sedentary behavior in older adults. Chastin, Fitzpatrick, Andrews, and DiCroce ( 2014 ) identified perceived pain, lack of energy, social pressure to rest, ageist stereotyping, and lack of

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Sarpreet Kahlon, Kiah Brubacher-Cressman, Erica Caron, Keren Ramonov, Ruth Taubman, Katherine Berg, F. Virginia Wright and Alicia J. Hilderley

theoretical foundation for the qualitative study. SDT posits that three needs of relatedness (i.e., connection to others), competence (i.e., skills and confidence in one’s skills), and autonomy (i.e., control, choice) support motivation for behaviors and changes therein ( Deci & Ryan, 2000 ). Motivation for

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Juliana S. Oliveira, Leanne Hassett, Catherine Sherrington, Elisabeth Ramsay, Catherine Kirkham, Shona Manning and Anne Tiedemann

poor self-rated balance were significantly more likely to set a balance-related goal than people with good self-rated balance. A previous qualitative study ( Yardley, Donovan-Hall, Francis, & Todd, 2007 ) showed that a person’s intention to undertake a balance-related exercise program was strongly