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Mirko Schmidt, Katja Jäger, Fabienne Egger, Claudia M. Roebers and Achim Conzelmann

Although the positive effects of different kinds of physical activity (PA) on cognitive functioning have already been demonstrated in a variety of studies, the role of cognitive engagement in promoting children’s executive functions is still unclear. The aim of the current study was therefore to investigate the effects of two qualitatively different chronic PA interventions on executive functions in primary school children. Children (N = 181) aged between 10 and 12 years were assigned to either a 6-week physical education program with a high level of physical exertion and high cognitive engagement (team games), a physical education program with high physical exertion but low cognitive engagement (aerobic exercise), or to a physical education program with both low physical exertion and low cognitive engagement (control condition). Executive functions (updating, inhibition, shifting) and aerobic fitness (multistage 20-m shuttle run test) were measured before and after the respective condition. Results revealed that both interventions (team games and aerobic exercise) have a positive impact on children’s aerobic fitness (4–5% increase in estimated VO2max). Importantly, an improvement in shifting performance was found only in the team games and not in the aerobic exercise or control condition. Thus, the inclusion of cognitive engagement in PA seems to be the most promising type of chronic intervention to enhance executive functions in children, providing further evidence for the importance of the qualitative aspects of PA.

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Kevin Laudner and Kyle Thorson

Context: Tightness of the pectoralis minor is a common characteristic that has been associated with aberrant posture and shoulder pathology. Determining conservative treatment techniques for maintaining and lengthening this muscle is critical. Although some gross stretching techniques have been proven effective, there are currently no empirical data regarding the effectiveness of self-myofascial release for treating tightness of this muscle. Objective: To determine the acute effectiveness of a self-myofascial release with movement technique of the pectoralis minor for improving shoulder motion and posture among asymptomatic individuals. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Orthopedic rehabilitation clinic. Participants: A total of 21 physically active, college-aged individuals without shoulder pain volunteered to participate in this study. Main Outcome Measures: Glenohumeral internal rotation, external rotation, and flexion range of motion (ROM), pectoralis minor length, and forward scapular posture were measured in all participants. The intervention group received one application of a self-soft-tissue mobilization of the pectoralis minor with movement. The placebo group completed the same motions as the intervention group, but with minimal pressure applied to the xiphoid process. Separate analyses of covariance were used to determine differences between groups (P < .05). Results: Separate analyses of covariance showed that the self-mobilization group had significantly more flexion ROM, pectoralis minor length, and less forward scapular posture posttest than the placebo group. However, the difference in forward scapular posture may not be clinically significant. No differences were found between groups for external or internal rotation ROM. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that an acute self-myofascial release with movement is effective for improving glenohumeral flexion ROM and pectoralis minor length, and may assist with forward scapular posture. Clinicians should consider this self-mobilization in the prevention and rehabilitation of pathologies associated with shortness of the pectoralis minor.

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Brian M. Moore, Joseph T. Adams, Sallie Willcox and Joseph Nicholson

active treatment approaches in improving reactive postural responses in community-dwelling older adults. By conducting a comprehensive search for randomized controlled trials that have investigated reactive postural responses as a primary outcome following completion of an active training program, this

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Julie A. Fuller, Heidi L. Hammil, Kelly J. Pronschinske and Chris J. Durall

dislocation in adolescents. • The search yielded 2 level II randomized controlled trials 2 , 3 and 1 level III nonrandomized study 1 that directly compared patellar redislocation rate, knee function, and patellofemoral pain between the 2 treatment approaches. • In 2 of the 3 reviewed studies, the authors

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Christine E. Roberts, Louise H. Phillips, Clare L. Cooper, Stuart Gray and Julia L. Allan

to maintain ADL and IADL abilities during old age are of prime importance. Mounting evidence from large-scale epidemiological studies, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analytic reviews offer compelling evidence that physical activity positively influences older adults’ abilities to carry out

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Steven Nagib and Shelley W. Linens

after suffering a concussion caused by sport or a direct blow to the head. • Three studies were included: 1 randomized control trial, 1 exploratory study, and 1 retrospective chart review. • All 3 studies support the use of VRT to treat postconcussion dizziness. • All 3 studies included used Dizziness

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Lauren Anne Lipker, Caitlyn Rae Persinger, Bradley Steven Michalko and Christopher J. Durall

Abbreviations: ACLR, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction; BFR, blood flow restriction; CSA, cross-sectional area; F, female; IKDC, International Knee Documentation Committee; M, male; RCT, randomized control trial; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; T1, T1 weighted MRI imaging. Best Evidence The studies

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Marjan Mosalman Haghighi, Yorgi Mavros and Maria A. Fiatarone Singh

exercise or behavioral programs on long-term PA and related health outcomes in type 2 diabetes within published randomized controlled trials (RCTs). In addition, we sought to define cohort, intervention, and PA measurement characteristics predictive of successful long-term behavioral changes. Methods Data

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Nicholas Hattrup, Hannah Gray, Mark Krumholtz and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

stage of recovery. • The literature search returned 12 studies related to the clinical question; 5 studies met the inclusion criteria. • One study was a randomized controlled trial showing aerobic exercise compared to a stretching routine resulted in a 2-day decrease in symptoms. 14 • One article 15

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Oluwaseyi Osho, Oluwatoyosi Owoeye and Susan Armijo-Olivo

, & Haines, 2013 ; Nyman & Victor, 2012 ; Simek, McPhate, & Haines 2012 ). To quantify the effectiveness of a FPEP, the effect size is particularly valuable; it allows relative comparison between the intervention and control groups in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) ( Robert, 2002 ). It is a simple way