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Elissa Burton, Karen Levit, Jim Codde, Keith D. Hill and Anne-Marie Hill

exercise programs or motivating older people to increase their physical activity ( Burton et al., 2018 ). Of the 18 included studies (six randomized controlled trials [RCTs]), 16 reported improvements in physical activity levels or function; however, the meta-analysis favored the control group for a 6-min

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Valerie Senkowski, Clara Gannon and Paul Branscum

included (i.e., randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies). Articles were excluded if they had a cross-sectional design or if the interventions did not target TPB constructs. Articles that included constructs from theories other than TPB were eligible for inclusion, as long as TPB was the

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Navin Kaushal, Ryan E. Rhodes, John T. Meldrum and John C. Spence

.g., running on the treadmill, lifting weights) of exercising. Although habit has demonstrated good predictive validity with PA, the experimental evidence for PA is limited ( Gardner, 2015 ; Rebar et al., 2016 ). Systematic reviews have not identified any randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that applied habit

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Angela Papadimitriou and Mark Perry

. The former would give an indication of the immediate treatment effect, and the latter would give a measure of the longer term effects. Study types Only randomized controlled trials were included in this review, to minimize selection bias. Randomization, provided there are sufficient participants, is

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Juliana S. Oliveira, Leanne Hassett, Catherine Sherrington, Elisabeth Ramsay, Catherine Kirkham, Shona Manning and Anne Tiedemann

-sectional study involving a secondary analysis of baseline data collected as a part of two randomized controlled trials ( n  = 205, ACTRN12614000016639 and ACTRN12615001190594). The design and methodology of these trials are described in detail elsewhere ( Tiedemann et al., 2015 , 2016 ). In brief, the two

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Heather J. Leach, Katie B. Potter and Mary C. Hidde

participants included in this study. Procedures This study was a pilot, 2-arm randomized controlled trial, comparing a group-dynamics-based PA intervention with an individually supervised (ie, personal training) PA intervention. Preintervention to postintervention results and details of the intervention have

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Kirsty A. Fairbairn, Ingrid J.M. Ceelen, C. Murray Skeaff, Claire M. Cameron and Tracy L. Perry

to be investigated. Given that vitamin D insufficiency is common in NZ, and that cross-sectional data implies an association between vitamin D status and physical performance, a randomized controlled trial was conducted to examine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on athletic performance in NZ

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Miguel A. Sanchez-Lastra, Kyle J. Miller, Rodolfo I. Martínez-Lemos, Antón Giráldez and Carlos Ayán

and meta-analyses that synthesize the scientific knowledge available on the subject, especially those based on the results from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which are traditionally considered the gold standard for judging the benefits of treatments. 24 To the authors’ knowledge, only one

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Linda Corbally, Mick Wilkinson and Melissa A. Fothergill

the review to randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Studies of all design types were included because non-randomized trials and simple before-after and case-control designs have been suggested to still have value in systematic reviews for exploring unknown benefits and harms, and adding to evidence

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Miguel A. Sanchez-Lastra, Vicente de Dios Álvarez and Carlos Ayán Pérez

aforementioned information that has been carried out. To provide the highest level of scientific evidence, this kind of research should be based on the inclusion and detailed analysis of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have been published on the subject so far. 9 Under these circumstances, the