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  • Psychology and Behavior in Sport/Exercise x
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Sarah J. Wherry, Cheryl Der Ananian and Pamela D. Swan

fall-related fractures in older people: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials . Int J Epidemiol . 2017 ; 46 ( 1 ): 149 – 161 . PubMed ID: 27477031 27477031 17. Pettee Gabriel K , McClain JJ , Lee CD , et al . Evaluation of physical activity measures used in middle-aged women

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Carolee Winstein

randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of complex interventions for recovery should be an imperative ( Campbell et al., 2000 ). We return to the issue raised earlier, “social and personal factors can have a high impact on stroke recovery in humans….and are not well modelled in preclinical research”. One noted

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Tyler L. Malone, Adam Kern, Emily Klueh and Daniel Eisenberg

relative to articles for both coping strategies. To test both hypotheses, we used a randomized controlled trial to compare video- and text-based interventions designed to deliver coping skills information to college student-athletes. Method Participants We recruited study participants via e-mail from all

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Brad Donohue, Yulia Gavrilova, Marina Galante, Elena Gavrilova, Travis Loughran, Jesse Scott, Graig Chow, Christopher P. Plant and Daniel N. Allen

health help-seeking in elite athletes: An exploratory randomized controlled trial . Journal of Medical Internet Research, 14 ( 3 ), 69 . doi:10.2196/jmir.1864 10.2196/jmir.1864 Gulliver , A. , Griffiths , K.M. , Mackinnon , A. , Batterham , P.J. , & Stanimirovic , R. ( 2015 ). The mental

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Bradley M. Wipfli, Chad D. Rethorst and Daniel M. Landers

A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effects of exercise on anxiety. Because previous meta-analyses in the area included studies of varying quality, only randomized, controlled trials were included in the present analysis. Results from 49 studies show an overall effect size of -0.48, indicating larger reductions in anxiety among exercise groups than no-treatment control groups. Exercise groups also showed greater reductions in anxiety compared with groups that received other forms of anxiety-reducing treatment (effect size = -0.19). Because only randomized, controlled trials were examined, these results provide Level 1, Grade A evidence for using exercise in the treatment of anxiety. In addition, exercise dose data were calculated to examine the relationship between dose of exercise and the corresponding magnitude of effect size.

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Gina Bravo, Pierre Gauthier, Pierre-Michel Roy, Hélène Payette, Marie-France Dubois, Monique Harvey and Philippe Gaulin

A recently completed randomized controlled trial documented the effects of a 1-year group-based exercise program in osteopenic women. The present study concerns the comparison of these effects to those produced by a home-based exercise program tested on the same population. All 63 women who had been randomly assigned to the control group in the previous study were invited to enroll in the home program. Comparison of pre- and posttest scores of home exercisers revealed improvements in agility and well-being. In comparison, women who had participated 1 year earlier in the group-based exercise program had improved on four of the five fitness tests, well-being, and pain intensity. More women in the group-based exercise program showed improvement in self-rated health in comparison to those enrolled in the home program. Results suggest that for osteopenic women, a group-based exercise program is much more effective than a home-based exercise program.

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Thelma J. Mielenz, Michael C. Edwards and Leigh F. Callahan

Benefits of physical activity for those with arthritis are clear, yet physical activity is difficult to initiate and maintain. Self-efficacy is a key modifiable psychosocial determinant of physical activity. This study examined two scales for self-efficacy for exercise behavior (SEEB) to identify their strengths and weaknesses using item response theory (IRT) from community-based randomized controlled trials of physical activity programs in adults with arthritis. The 2 SEEB scales included the 9-item scale by Resnick developed with older adults and the 5-item scale by Marcus developed with employed adults. All IRT analyses were conducted using the graded-response model. IRT assumptions were assessed using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The IRT analyses indicated that these scales are precise and reliable measures for identifying people with arthritis and low SEEB. The Resnick SEEB scale is slightly more precise at lower levels of self-efficacy in older adults with arthritis.

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Carolyn Rabin, Bernardine M. Pinto and Georita M. Frierson

Physical activity (PA) interventions diminish some of the physical and psychosocial sequelae of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. To increase intervention efficacy and portability, it is necessary to determine the factors mediating intervention effects on physical and psychosocial outcomes. This study presents mediator analyses from a randomized controlled trial of a home-based PA intervention (focused primarily on brisk walking) for breast cancer survivors. Eighty-six survivors were randomized to PA or contact control groups (mean age = 53.42 years, SD = 9.08 and 52.86 years, SD = 10.38 respectively; mean time since diagnosis < 2 years). The PA intervention was based on the transtheoretical model (TTM). Kraemerʼs approach was used to test hypothesized mediators. TTM variables did not mediate intervention effects on PA. Data indicate that increases in moderate-intensity PA and improved fitness may mediate intervention effects on vigor (β = .21; p = .01) and fatigue (β = .24; p = .05) and suggest the value of future research on these potential mediators.

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Elissa Burton, Gill Lewin and Duncan Boldy

The proportion of older people living in our communities is rising and, to live independently, some require assistance from home care services. Physical activity can improve and maintain function, strength, and balance, which are important for those receiving home care. This study reviewed the evidence on physical activity/exercise interventions trialed with older people receiving a home care service. A systematic review of studies published from January 1982 to September 2012, from five databases, was undertaken. Inclusion criteria were: aged 65+ years; community dwelling; no dementia diagnosis; receiving home care services; and a physical activity/exercise program. Eight articles were included and results show there were few consistencies between intervention types, groups, outcome measures, and follow-up. Study quality was mixed. Future studies should include pragmatic randomized controlled trials involving home care practitioners and their clients to gain “real-world” knowledge of what interventions are effective and can be delivered within this setting.

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Susan Williams, Claudia Meyer, Frances Batchelor and Keith Hill

The objective of this study was to determine whether improved balance outcomes achieved in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) using balance screening to identify mild balance dysfunction and home exercises could be translated into community settings. Community-dwelling people aged over 65 who expressed concerns about their balance, had less than two falls in the preceding 12 months, and who had mild balance impairment on screening were given an individualized home-based balance and strengthening exercise program with intermittent home-visit support by a physiotherapist. Of 71 participants assessed (mean age 77.3 years, 76% female), 58 (82%) completed the six-month intervention. Twenty six percent of participants regained balance performance within normal limits—similar to those achieved in the previous RCT. Successful results from a previous RCT were able to be translated into community settings, with a similar magnitude of effect on balance and mobility.