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Robin T. Thorpe, Anthony J. Strudwick, Martin Buchheit, Greg Atkinson, Barry Drust and Warren Gregson

Purpose:

To determine the sensitivity of a range of potential fatigue measures to daily training load accumulated over the previous 2, 3, and 4 d during a short in-season competitive period in elite senior soccer players (N = 10).

Methods:

Total highspeed-running distance, perceived ratings of wellness (fatigue, muscle soreness, sleep quality), countermovement-jump height (CMJ), submaximal heart rate (HRex), postexercise heart-rate recovery (HRR), and heart-rate variability (HRV: Ln rMSSD) were analyzed during an in-season competitive period (17 d). General linear models were used to evaluate the influence of 2-, 3-, and 4-d total high-speed-running-distance accumulation on fatigue measures.

Results:

Fluctuations in perceived ratings of fatigue were correlated with fluctuations in total high-speed-running-distance accumulation covered on the previous 2 d (r = –.31; small), 3 d (r = –.42; moderate), and 4 d (r = –.28; small) (P < .05). Changes in HRex (r = .28; small; P = .02) were correlated with changes in 4-d total high-speed-running-distance accumulation only. Correlations between variability in muscle soreness, sleep quality, CMJ, HRR%, and HRV and total high-speed-running distance were negligible and not statistically significant for all accumulation training loads.

Conclusions:

Perceived ratings of fatigue and HRex were sensitive to fluctuations in acute total high-speed-running-distance accumulation, although sensitivity was not systematically influenced by the number of previous days over which the training load was accumulated. The present findings indicate that the sensitivity of morning-measured fatigue variables to changes in training load is generally not improved when compared with training loads beyond the previous day’s training.

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Armand E.O. Bettonviel, Naomi Y.J. Brinkmans, Kris Russcher, Floris C. Wardenaar and Oliver C. Witard

The nutritional status of elite soccer players across match, postmatch, training and rest days has not been defined. Recent evidence suggests the pattern of dietary protein intake impacts the daytime turnover of muscle proteins and, as such, influences muscle recovery. We assessed the nutritional status and daytime pattern of protein intake in senior professional and elite youth soccer players and compared findings against published recommendations. Fourteen senior professional (SP) and 15 youth elite (YP) soccer players from the Dutch premier division completed nutritional assessments using a 24-hr web-based recall method. Recall days consisted of a match, postmatch, rest, and training day. Daily energy intake over the 4-day period was similar between SP (2988 ± 583 kcal/day) and YP (2938 ± 465 kcal/day; p = .800). Carbohydrate intake over the combined 4-day period was lower in SP (4.7 ± 0.7 g·kg-1 BM·day-1) vs. YP (6.0 ± 1.5 g·kg-1 BM·day-1, p = .006) and SP failed to meet recommended carbohydrate intakes on match and training days. Conversely, recommended protein intakes were met for SP (1.9 ± 0.3 g·kg-1 BM·day-1) and YP (1.7 ± 0.4 g·kg-1 BM·day-1), with no differences between groups (p = .286). Accordingly, both groups met or exceeded recommended daily protein intakes on individual match, postmatch, rest and training days. A similar “balanced” daytime pattern of protein intake was observed in SP and YP. To conclude, SP increased protein intake on match and training days to a greater extent than YP, however at the expense of carbohydrate intake. The daytime distribution of protein intake for YP and SP aligned with current recommendations of a balanced protein meal pattern.

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Chelsea L. Oxendale, Craig Twist, Matthew Daniels and Jamie Highton

Purpose:

While exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) after rugby league match play has been well documented, the specific match actions that contribute to EIMD are unclear. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to investigate the positional demands of elite rugby league matches and examine their relationship with subsequent EIMD.

Methods:

Twenty-eight performances (from 17 participants) were captured using 10-Hz global positioning systems over 4 competitive matches. Upper- and lower-body neuromuscular fatigue, creatine kinase (CK), and perceived muscle soreness were assessed 24 h before and at 12, 36, and 60 h after matches.

Results:

High-intensity running was moderately higher in backs (6.6 ± 2.6 m/min) than in forwards (5.1 ± 1.6 m/min), whereas total collisions were moderately lower (31.1 ± 13.1 vs 54.1 ± 37.0). Duration (r = .90, CI: .77–.96) and total (r = .86, CI: .70–.95) and high-intensity distance covered (r = .76, CI: .51–.91) were associated (P < .05) with increased CK concentration postmatch. Total collisions and repeated high-intensity efforts were associated (P < .05) with large decrements in upper-body neuromuscular performance (r = –.48, CI: –.74 to .02; r = –.49, CI: –.77 to .05, respectively), muscle soreness (r = –.68, CI: –.87 to –.10, r = –.66, CI: –.89 to .21, respectively), and CK concentration (r = .67, CI: .42–.85; r = .73, CI: .51–.87, respectively). All EIMD markers returned to baseline within 60 h.

Conclusion:

Match duration, high-intensity running, and collisions were associated with variations in EIMD markers, suggesting that recovery is dependent on individual match demands.

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Robin T. Thorpe, Anthony J. Strudwick, Martin Buchheit, Greg Atkinson, Barry Drust and Warren Gregson

Purpose:

To quantify the mean daily changes in training and match load and any parallel changes in indicators of morningmeasured fatigue across in-season training weeks in elite soccer players.

Methods:

After each training session and match (TL), session ratings of perceived exertion (s-RPE) were recorded to calculate overall session load (RPE-TL) in 29 English Premier League players from the same team. Morning ratings of fatigue, sleep quality, and delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), as well as submaximal exercise heart rate (HRex), postexercise heart-rate recovery (HRR%), and heart-rate variability (HRV) were recorded before match day and 1, 2, and 4 d postmatch. Data were collected for a median duration of 3 wk (range 1–13) and reduced to a typical weekly cycle including no midweek match and a weekend match day. Data were analyzed using withinsubject linear mixed models.

Results:

RPE-TL was approximately 600 arbitrary units (AU) (95% confidence interval 546–644) higher on match day than following day (P < .001). RPE-TL progressively decreased by »60 AU per day over the 3 days before a match (P < .05). Morning-measured fatigue, sleep quality, and DOMS tracked the changes in RPE-TL, being 35–40% worse on postmatch day vs prematch day (P < .001). Perceived fatigue, sleep quality, and DOMS improved by 17–26% from postmatch day to 3 d postmatch, with further smaller (7%–14%) improvements occurring between 4 d postmatch and prematch day (P < .01). There were no substantial or statistically significant changes in HRex, HRR%, or HRV over the weekly cycle (P > .05).

Conclusions:

Morning-measured ratings of fatigue, sleep quality, and DOMS are clearly more sensitive than HR-derived indices to the daily fluctuations in session load experienced by elite soccer players in a standard in-season week.

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Daniel Viggiani and Jack P. Callaghan

hip extensor musculature in clinical LBP populations arises from the interplay between hip function and LBP. 24 , 25 While LBP can also slow the recovery from muscle fatigue of lumbar spine extensor musculature, 26 – 28 it is not known how LBP affects recovery from hip muscle fatigue. LBP

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Benita J. Lalor, Shona L. Halson, Jacqueline Tran, Justin G. Kemp and Stuart J. Cormack

Australian Football (AF) is an intermittent team sport involving rapid accelerations and decelerations, collisions, and large distances covered at a high intensity. 1 The competitive season can produce high levels of fatigue, and optimizing recovery in order to maximize performance is critical. 1

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Corall S. Hjert and Cynthia J. Wright

after FR application. Characteristics of the included studies are presented in Table  1 . Table 1 Characteristics of Included Studies Authors Characteristics MacDonald et al. 2 Pearcey et al. 3 Fleckenstein et al. 9 Laffaye et al. 13 Study title Foam Rolling as a Recovery Tool after an Intense Bout of

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Ian McGinnis, Justin Cobb, Ryan Tierney and Anne Russ

recovery from concussion, both in athletic and general populations. 4 – 6 The vestibular system’s regulation of balance, spatial orientation, and gaze stability plays a key role in athletic tasks and many activities of daily living. Disruption of the vestibular system can exacerbate other symptoms of

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Brett S. Pexa, Eric D. Ryan, Elizabeth E. Hibberd, Elizabeth Teel, Terri Jo Rucinski and Joseph B. Myers

’s posterior shoulder to a high amount of eccentric muscle activity and causes significant trauma to the musculoskeletal system. Despite acute changes in CSA, 19 , 22 range of motion, 7 – 9 and glenohumeral strength, 23 there is still limited evidence defining the time to recovery of these variables

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Ned Brophy-Williams, Matthew W. Driller, Cecilia M. Kitic, James W. Fell and Shona L. Halson

Purpose:

To determine the effect of wearing compression socks between repeated running bouts on perceptual, physiological, and performance-based parameters.

Methods:

Twelve well-trained male runners (mean ± SD 5-km time 19:24 ± 1:19 [min:s]) recorded their perceptions of the efficacy of compression socks for recovery before completion of 2 experimental sessions. Each session consisted of two 5-km running time trials (TT1 and TT2) on a treadmill, with a 1-h recovery period between. In a randomized crossover design, 1 session required participants to wear compression socks during the recovery period, and no compression socks were worn between TTs in the other session (control).

Results:

Running performance between TT1 and TT2 for runners wearing compression socks was similar between TTs (mean Δ 5.3 ± 20.7 s, d = 0.07, P = .20), whereas for control runners, performance significantly decreased in the second TT (mean Δ 15.9 ± 13.3 s, d = 0.19, P < .01). When grouped by perception of efficacy for compression socks, participants with strong beliefs (n = 7) experienced improved subsequent running performance with compression socks (mean Δ –3.6 ± 19.2 s, d = 0.05, P = .32) compared with those with neutral or negative perceptions (n = 5; mean Δ 17.9 ± 17.0 s, d = 0.19, P = .04). Cross-sectional area of the calf and muscle soreness were significantly reduced during the recovery period with the use of compression socks (P < .01), whereas ratings of fatigue showed no difference between conditions.

Conclusions:

Wearing compression socks between repeated running bouts can aid recovery and subsequent performance. Furthermore, subsequent exercise performance may be even further enhanced when athletes believe in the efficacy of compression socks to assist in recovery between exercise bouts.