’s posterior shoulder to a high amount of eccentric muscle activity and causes significant trauma to the musculoskeletal system. Despite acute changes in CSA, 19 , 22 range of motion, 7 – 9 and glenohumeral strength, 23 there is still limited evidence defining the time to recovery of these variables
Brett S. Pexa, Eric D. Ryan, Elizabeth E. Hibberd, Elizabeth Teel, Terri Jo Rucinski and Joseph B. Myers
Gavriil G. Arsoniadis, Gregory C. Bogdanis, Gerasimos Terzis and Argyris G. Toubekis
exhaustion was reduced over a week of concurrent strength and endurance training, but the energy cost of submaximal exercise was unchanged 9 hours after the strength training sessions. 11 Strength training characteristics and subsequent endurance training intensity as well as the recovery period may be
Ned Brophy-Williams, Matthew W. Driller, Cecilia M. Kitic, James W. Fell and Shona L. Halson
To determine the effect of wearing compression socks between repeated running bouts on perceptual, physiological, and performance-based parameters.
Twelve well-trained male runners (mean ± SD 5-km time 19:24 ± 1:19 [min:s]) recorded their perceptions of the efficacy of compression socks for recovery before completion of 2 experimental sessions. Each session consisted of two 5-km running time trials (TT1 and TT2) on a treadmill, with a 1-h recovery period between. In a randomized crossover design, 1 session required participants to wear compression socks during the recovery period, and no compression socks were worn between TTs in the other session (control).
Running performance between TT1 and TT2 for runners wearing compression socks was similar between TTs (mean Δ 5.3 ± 20.7 s, d = 0.07, P = .20), whereas for control runners, performance significantly decreased in the second TT (mean Δ 15.9 ± 13.3 s, d = 0.19, P < .01). When grouped by perception of efficacy for compression socks, participants with strong beliefs (n = 7) experienced improved subsequent running performance with compression socks (mean Δ –3.6 ± 19.2 s, d = 0.05, P = .32) compared with those with neutral or negative perceptions (n = 5; mean Δ 17.9 ± 17.0 s, d = 0.19, P = .04). Cross-sectional area of the calf and muscle soreness were significantly reduced during the recovery period with the use of compression socks (P < .01), whereas ratings of fatigue showed no difference between conditions.
Wearing compression socks between repeated running bouts can aid recovery and subsequent performance. Furthermore, subsequent exercise performance may be even further enhanced when athletes believe in the efficacy of compression socks to assist in recovery between exercise bouts.
Benjamin G. Serpell, Barry G. Horgan, Carmen M.E. Colomer, Byron Field, Shona L. Halson and Christian J. Cook
Sleep is regarded as one of the best recovery strategies available to elite athletes, with sleep playing an important role in performance, cognitive function, mood, illness, and metabolism. 1 Evidence suggests that athletes may have poorer sleep quality and quantity than the general population, 2
Jeffrey J. Zachwieja, David L. Costill and William J. Fink
To determine the effect of carbohydrate feeding on muscle glycogen resynthesis, 8 male cyclists pedaled for 2 hrs on a cycle ergometer at 70% of VO2max while consuming either a 10% carbohydrate solution (CHO) or a nonnutritive sweet placebo (No CHO). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis prior to, immediately postexercise, and at 2,4, and 24 hrs of recovery. Blood samples were taken before and at the end of exercise, and at specified times during recovery. During both trials food intake was withheld for the first 2 hrs of recovery, but at 2 hrs postexercise a 24% carbohydrate solution was ingested. The rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis during the first 2 hrs of recovery was similar for the CHO and No CHO trials. Following ingestion of the 24% carbohydrate supplement, the rates of muscle glycogen resynthesis increased similarly in both trials. These similar rates of resynthesis following ingestion of the carbohydrate supplement were obtained despite significantly greater serum glucose and insulin levels during the No CHO trial. The results indicate that the carbohydrate feedings taken during exercise had little effect on postexercise muscle glycogen resynthesis.
Jonathan Magee, Ramón Spaaij and Ruth Jeanes
This paper builds on the concept of mental health recovery to critically examine three football projects in the United Kingdom and their effects on the recovery process. Drawing on qualitative research on the lived experiences of mental health clients and service providers across the three projects, we explore the role of football in relation to three components of recovery: engagement, stigma, and social isolation. The findings indicate how the projects facilitated increased client engagement, peer supports, and the transformation of self-stigma. The perception of football as an alternative setting away from the clinical environment was an important factor in this regard. Yet, the results also reveal major limitations, including the narrow, individualistic conceptualization of both recovery and stigma within the projects, the reliance on a biomedical model of mental illness, and the potentially adverse consequences of using football in mental health interventions.
David S. Rowlands, Rhys M. Thorp, Karin Rossler, David F. Graham and Mike J. Rockell
Carbohydrate ingestion after prolonged strenuous exercise enhances recovery, but protein might also be important. In a crossover with 2-wk washout, 10 cyclists completed 2.5 h of intervals followed by 4-h recovery feeding, provided 218 g protein, 435 g carbohydrate, and 79 g fat (protein enriched) or 34 g protein, 640 g carbohydrate, and 79 g fat (isocaloric control). The next morning, cyclists performed 10 maximal constant-work sprints on a Velotron cycle ergometer, each lasting ~2.5 min, at ~5-min intervals. Test validity was established and test reliability and the individual response to the protein-enriched condition estimated by 6 cyclists’ repeating the intervals, recovery feeding, and performance test 2 wk later in the protein-enriched condition. During the 4-h recovery, the protein-enriched feeding had unclear effects on mean concentrations of plasma insulin, cortisol, and growth hormone, but testosterone was 25% higher (90% confidence limits, ± 14%). Protein enrichment also reduced plasma creatine kinase by 33% (±38%) the next morning and reduced tiredness and leg-soreness sensations during the sprints, but effects on mean sprint power were unclear (–1.4%, ±4.3%). The between-subjects trial-to-trial coefficient of variation in overall mean sprint power was 3.1% (±3.4%), whereas the variation in the protein-enriched condition was 5.9% (±6.9%), suggesting that individual responses to the protein-enriched treatment contributed to the unclear performance outcome. To conclude, protein-enriched recovery feeding had no clear effect on next-day performance.
Daniel J. Davies, Kenneth S. Graham and Chin Moi Chow
The use of daytime napping as a recovery tool following exercise is virtually unexplored. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of daytime nap sleep following endurance training in an athletic population, and to appraise the optimal circadian timing of the nap and the time interval between training and the nap.
Six physically trained male subjects (22.5 ± 2.4 y) performed four separate standardized 90-min endurance training sessions followed by a 90-min daytime nap either 1 or 2 h after training (time interval), commencing at either 10:30 or 11:30 (circadian timing). During the nap, sleep was monitored using polysomnography. Subjective measurements of sleep quality, alertness and preparedness to train following a nap were recorded using a visual analog scale.
The duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) was significantly greater during the 11:30 naps (13.7 ± 9.0 min) compared with the 10:30 naps (6.9 ± 8.8 min) (P = .049). There was no significant difference in SWS duration between a 1-h (10.6 ± 10.2 min) or 2-h (10.0 ± 9.0 min) time interval between training and the nap (P = .82). No other sleep variables differed significantly according to circadian timing or time interval.
Recovery naps commenced later in the morning contain more SWS than earlier naps. The data imply that daytime naps have a potential role as a valuable recovery tool following endurance exercise, given the suggested energy restorative functions of SWS.
Jason R. Karp, Jeanne D. Johnston, Sandra Tecklenburg, Timothy D. Mickleborough, Alyce D. Fly and Joel M. Stager
Nine male, endurance-trained cyclists performed an interval workout followed by 4 h of recovery, and a subsequent endurance trial to exhaustion at 70% VO2max, on three separate days. Immediately following the first exercise bout and 2 h of recovery, subjects drank isovolumic amounts of chocolate milk, fluid replacement drink (FR), or carbohydrate replacement drink (CR), in a single-blind, randomized design. Carbohydrate content was equivalent for chocolate milk and CR. Time to exhaustion (TTE), average heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and total work (WT) for the endurance exercise were compared between trials. TTE and WT were significantly greater for chocolate milk and FR trials compared to CR trial. The results of this study suggest that chocolate milk is an effective recovery aid between two exhausting exercise bouts.
John K. Malone, Catherine Blake and Brian Caulfield
To investigate the use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) during acute recovery between 2 bouts of maximal aerobic exercise.
On 3 separate days, 19 trained male cyclists (28 ± 7 y, 76.4 ± 10.4 kg, power output at maximal aerobic power [pVo2max] 417 ± 44 W) performed a 3-min maximal cycling bout at 105% PVo2max before a 30-min randomly assigned recovery intervention of passive (PAS: resting), active (ACT: 30% PVo2max), or NMES (5 Hz, 4 pulses at 500 μs). Immediately afterward, a cycle bout at 95% PVo2max to exhaustion (TLIM) was performed. Heart rate (HR) and blood lactate (BLa) were recorded at designated time points. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA with a Tukey honestly significantly different post hoc test. Statistical significance threshold was P < .05.
The TLIM was significantly shorter for NMES than for ACT (199.6 ± 69.4 s vs 250.7 ± 105.5 s: P = .016) but not PAS recovery (199.6 ± 69.4 s vs 216.4 ± 77.5 s: P = .157). The TLIM was not significantly different between ACT and PAS (250.7 ± 105.5 s vs 216.4 ± 77.5 s: P = .088). The decline in BLa was significantly greater during ACT than NMES and PAS recovery (P < .001), with no difference between NMES and PAS. In addition, HR was significantly higher during ACT than NMES and PAS recovery (P < .001), with no difference between NMES and PAS.
NMES was less effective than ACT and comparable to PAS recovery when used between 2 bouts of maximal aerobic exercise in trained male cyclists.