Congruence between actual and retrospective reports for pre- and postcompetition emotional states was investigated separately and together. Fifty-two members of four university sport teams participated in one or more of three experimental conditions. The first condition consisted of actual measurement of precompetition emotional states and retrospective measurement of the same situation following a 72-hr delay. Actual and retrospective measurement of postcompetition emotional states comprised the second condition. The third condition included actual measurement of pre- and post-states and retrospective measurement of both states after a 72-hr delay. RM-MANOVA procedures revealed that athletes could report and differentiate between their pre- and postcompetition emotional experiences, and that retrospective report was not affected by the pre/post interference after a 72-hour delay. However, athletes underestimated the intensity of postcompetition unpleasant emotions. Correlations between the structured actual and retrospective measures of emotions were moderate to strong, and thus congruent. However, thoughts and feelings that were openly expressed after 72 hours were not fully congruent with thoughts and feelings reported in real time. These findings are discussed in relation to Ericsson and Simon’s (1980, 1984) conceptualization of verbal reports as data, and Ross’ (1989) implicit theory of stability and change.
Gershon Tenenbaum and Efrat Elran
Ching-Yi Wang, Ming-Hsia Hu, Hui-Ya Chen and Ren-Hau Li
To determine the test–retest reliability and criterion validity of self-reported function in mobility and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in older adults, a convenience sample of 70 subjects (72.9 ± 6.6 yr, 34 male) was split into able and disabled groups based on baseline assessment and into consistently able, consistently disabled, and inconsistent based on repeat assessments over 2 weeks. The criterion validities of the self-reported measures of mobility domain and IADL-physical subdomain were assessed with concurrent baseline measures of 4 mobility performances, and that of the self-reported measure of IADL-cognitive subdomain, with the Mini-Mental State Examination. Test–retest reliability was moderate for the mobility, IADL-physical, and IADL-cognitive subdomains (κ = .51–.66). Those who reported being able at baseline also performed better on physical- and cognitive-performance tests. Those with variable performance between test occasions tended to report inconsistently on repeat measures in mobility and IADL-cognitive, suggesting fluctuations in physical and cognitive performance.
Chiaki Tanaka, Shigeho Tanaka, Shigeru Inoue, Motohiko Miyachi, Koya Suzuki and John J. Reilly
The Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth aims to consolidate existing evidence, encourage greater evidence-informed physical activity, and improve surveillance of physical activity.
The Japan report card followed the methodology of the Canadian and Scottish report cards, but was adapted to reflect the Japanese context. Nationally representative data were used to score each of the respective indicators.
The 2016 Japan Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth consists of Health Behaviors and Outcomes (7 indicators), and Influences on Health Behaviors (4 indicators). Three Health Behaviors and Outcomes received C grades (Participation in Sport; Sedentary Behavior; Recreational Screen Time; Physical Fitness), while 2 indicators could not be graded (Overall Physical Activity, and Active Play). The indicators Active Transportation (B) and Weight Status were favorable (A). In the Influences domain, Family Influence and Community and the Built Environment were graded as D, while School and Government Strategies and Investments were favorable (B).
The Japan report card illustrated some favorable health behaviors, health outcomes, and influences. There is a need for more evidence especially on overall physical activity levels, active play, and community and the built environment.
Barbara Sternfeld and Lisa Goldman-Rosas
Numerous instruments to measure self-reported physical activity (PA) exist, but there is little guidance for determining the most appropriate choice.
To provide a systematic framework for researchers and practitioners to select a self-reported PA instrument.
The framework consists of 2 components: a series of questions and a database of instruments. The questions encourage users to think critically about their specific needs and to appreciate the strengths and limitations of the available options. Instruments for the database were identified through existing literature and expert opinion.
Ten questions, ranging from study aim and study design to target population and logistical consideration, guide the researcher or practitioner in defining the criteria for an appropriate PA instruments for a given situation. No one question on its own determines the optimal choice, but taken together, they narrow the potential field. The database currently includes 38 different self-reported PA instruments, characterized by 18 different parameters.
The series of questions presented here, in conjunction with a searchable database of self-report PA instruments, provides a needed step toward the development of guiding principles and good practices for researchers and practitioners to follow in making an informed selection of a self-reported PA instrument.
Lynette L. Craft, Frank M. Perna, Karen M. Freund and Larry Culpepper
Exercise effectively reduces symptoms of depression. However, correlates of regular exercise in depressed women are unknown. This study assessed psychosocial determinants of exercise in a sample of women with depressive symptoms.
Sixty-one women completed demographic, depression, and exercise-related questionnaires.
The average Primary Health Ques-tionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depression score was 12.1 (SD = 5.0), indicating moderate depressive symptoms. In the previous week, the women reported 12.8 metabolic equivalents (METs) of exercise. Low levels of self-efficacy and social support for exercise were also reported. Depressive symptoms were positively associated with barriers to exercise (r = .35, P < .01), and barriers were inversely related to exercise METs (r = –.37, P < .05). Barriers to activity and education level were significant determinants of exercise.
Women with depressive symptoms report minimal exercise involvement, numerous barriers to exercise, and low exercise self-efficacy and social support for exercise.
Anna E. Saw, Michael Kellmann, Luana C. Main and Paul B. Gastin
Athlete self-report measures (ASRM) have the potential to provide valuable insight into the training response; however, there is a disconnect between research and practice that needs to be addressed; namely, the measure or methods used in research are not always reflective of practice, or data primarily obtained from practice lacks empirical quality. This commentary reviews existing empirical measures and the psychometric properties required to be considered acceptable for research and practice. This information will allow discerning readers to make a judgment on the quality of ASRM data being reported in research papers. Fastidious practitioners and researchers are also provided with explicit guidelines for selecting and implementing an ASRM and reporting these details in research papers.
Michael W. Beets, Arissa G. Eilert, Kenneth H. Pitetti and John T. Foley
Child-parent pairs (n = 109) completed a questionnaire assessing whether changes in normal physical activity levels occurred (child) or were observed (parent) when the children wore a pedometer for 7 days. Over two-thirds of the children (78.5%) and almost half of the parents (47.3%) indicated an increase in the child’s normal physical activity. Reduced television viewing (75.2%) and increased outdoor play on the weekend (35.8%) were the most frequently reported means of behavior change as reported by the children and parents, respectively. Results indicate that both children and parents perceive a reactive effect to wearing an unsealed pedometer.
Kelly Mattran, Carmen Harris, Jan Jernigan and Janet Fulton
The State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2010 (SIRPA) and accompanying resources provide information for practitioners to promote physical activity. This study evaluated awareness, access, and use of materials among physical activity practitioners.
A Web-based survey assessed awareness, access and use among respondents. The 26-item questionnaire assessed the usability of products developed by the federal government. Response frequencies and 95% confidence intervals were reported.
Response rate was 27% (135 of 508). Awareness of material was from e-mail (35.6%) or partner Websites (37.8%). One-third of respondents (33.3%) accessed materials at least once a month, but 39.3% reported no use. The SIRPA (44.4%) and state-specific action guides (34.1%) were used the most. Materials were used to compare state-specific to national data (57.0%) and to present data to the public (41.5%). Most respondents (83%) reported public health partners as a target audience, and 91.8% were likely to share information in the future.
SIRPA awareness was primarily through electronic communication, and two-thirds of respondents used the materials. Respondents accessed materials for state comparisons and public distribution. Increasing the use of federal physical activity promotion materials involves considering design and dissemination features related to the needs of practitioners.
Helene Buch Pedersen, Morten Helmer-Nielsen, Karin Brochstedt Dieperink and Birte Østergaard
Exercise on prescription (EOP) is an attempt to increase physical activity among sedentary adults with signs of lifestyle diseases. Until now, no studies have focused on patients with chronic diseases and how they assess the long-term effect of participating in EOP consisting of supervised interventions of different intensities. This study aimed to describe and compare self-reported physical activity in the long term among participants in 3 EOP modules of different intensities.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1152 former participants in EOP between July 2005 and May 2007 in 2 Danish counties. Physical activity was measured as number of days with a minimum 30 minutes of moderate/vigorous activity.
Seventy-five percent (n = 854) returned the questionnaire. Of these, 36% reported being physically active ≥ 5 days/week. Comparing leisure-time activities before EOP 29% was sedentary vs. 15% (P < 0 .01) after, moderate + hard leisure-time activities was 7% before vs. 19% after EOP (P < 0 .01). Time postintervention did not influence the numbers reporting to be physical active negatively.
This study in community-dwelling adults with chronic diseases participating in EOP finds that approximately one-third reported being physically active in the long term postintervention, but no differences between the modalities were found.
Ade F. Adeniyi, Olukemi O. Odukoya, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Rufus A. Adedoyin, Olatunde S. Ojo, Edirin Metseagharun and Kingsley K. Akinroye
The Nigerian Report card on Physical Activity (PA) in Children and Youth was first developed in 2013 to inform practice and policy on healthy living and prevention of noncommunicable diseases among Nigerian children and youth. This article summarizes the results of the 2016 report card and provides updated evidence on the current situation in Nigeria.
A comprehensive review of literature was undertaken by the Report Card Working Group. Grades were assigned to 10 PA indicators based on the criteria used for the 2013 edition.
Grades assigned to the indicators were Overall PA, D; Active Play and Leisure, C; Active Transportation, B; Sedentary Behaviors (screen-based, F and nonscreen-based, D); Overweight and Obesity, A; PA in Schools, C-; Government/Nongovernment Organizations/Private Sector/Policy, B. The following indicators were graded as Incomplete: Organized Sport and PA, Community and Built Environment, and Family and Peers.
The overall PA levels of Nigerian children and youth seemed to be declining compared with the 2013 Report card but with slight improvement in active play and leisure, and PA in school settings. A substantial number of Nigerian children and youth still have high sedentary behaviors, overweight and obesity. Efforts are needed to promote PA among them.