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Lynette L. Craft, Frank M. Perna, Karen M. Freund and Larry Culpepper

Background:

Exercise effectively reduces symptoms of depression. However, correlates of regular exercise in depressed women are unknown. This study assessed psychosocial determinants of exercise in a sample of women with depressive symptoms.

Methods:

Sixty-one women completed demographic, depression, and exercise-related questionnaires.

Results:

The average Primary Health Ques-tionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depression score was 12.1 (SD = 5.0), indicating moderate depressive symptoms. In the previous week, the women reported 12.8 metabolic equivalents (METs) of exercise. Low levels of self-efficacy and social support for exercise were also reported. Depressive symptoms were positively associated with barriers to exercise (r = .35, P < .01), and barriers were inversely related to exercise METs (r = –.37, P < .05). Barriers to activity and education level were significant determinants of exercise.

Conclusions:

Women with depressive symptoms report minimal exercise involvement, numerous barriers to exercise, and low exercise self-efficacy and social support for exercise.

Open access

Anna E. Saw, Michael Kellmann, Luana C. Main and Paul B. Gastin

Athlete self-report measures (ASRM) have the potential to provide valuable insight into the training response; however, there is a disconnect between research and practice that needs to be addressed; namely, the measure or methods used in research are not always reflective of practice, or data primarily obtained from practice lacks empirical quality. This commentary reviews existing empirical measures and the psychometric properties required to be considered acceptable for research and practice. This information will allow discerning readers to make a judgment on the quality of ASRM data being reported in research papers. Fastidious practitioners and researchers are also provided with explicit guidelines for selecting and implementing an ASRM and reporting these details in research papers.

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Michael W. Beets, Arissa G. Eilert, Kenneth H. Pitetti and John T. Foley

Child-parent pairs (n = 109) completed a questionnaire assessing whether changes in normal physical activity levels occurred (child) or were observed (parent) when the children wore a pedometer for 7 days. Over two-thirds of the children (78.5%) and almost half of the parents (47.3%) indicated an increase in the child’s normal physical activity. Reduced television viewing (75.2%) and increased outdoor play on the weekend (35.8%) were the most frequently reported means of behavior change as reported by the children and parents, respectively. Results indicate that both children and parents perceive a reactive effect to wearing an unsealed pedometer.

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Marjolein Visser, Robert J. Brychta, Kong Y. Chen and Annemarie Koster

We aimed to compare self-reported adherence to the physical activity recommendation with accelerometry in older adults and to identify determinants of misperception. The sample included 138 adults age 65–75 yr old participating in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Participants completed a lifestyle questionnaire and wore an accelerometer for one week. More than half (56.8%) of the participants reported to adhere to the physical activity recommendation (in 5-min bouts), however, based on accelerometry, this percentage was only 24.6%. Of those who reported to adhere, 65.3% did not do so based on accelerometry. The misperceivers were older (p < .009), more often female (p = .007), had a poorer walking performance (p = .02), reported a lower social support (p = .04), and tended to have a lower self-efficacy (p = .09) compared with those who correctly perceived their adherence to the recommendation. These results suggest that misperception of adherence to the physical activity recommendation is highly prevalent among specific subgroups of older adults.

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James J. McClain, David Grant, Gordon Willis and David Berrigan

Background:

Question design can influence the validity and reliability of physical activity (PA) self-report instruments. This study assesses the effect of temporal domain (“days” walked versus “times” walked) on survey questions about walking behavior.

Methods:

A 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) sub-sample (n = 6332) reported the number of days or times they walked for leisure or transportation in the past 7 days and the usual time spent per day or per time. Question order was randomized by temporal domain. Minutes walked per week (mean ± SE) and adherence to PA guidelines (≥150 min/wk) were assessed.

Results:

Estimates of leisure walking remained stable across temporal domain (days = 71.4 ± 2.5 min; times = 73.4 ± 2.4 min), but transportation walking differed depending on domain (days = 70.4 ± 3.2 min; times = 52.5 ± 2.6 min). Adherence to PA guidelines based on leisure walking was stable across temporal domain (days = 14.9 ± 0.6%; times = 14.9 ± 0.6%), but again differed by domain for transportation walking (days = 10.4 ± 0.6%; times = 7.8 ± 0.5%). A large order effect (number-of-days versus number-of-times asked first) was observed for reports of days walking for transportation (days first = 87.8 ± 2.9 min; times first = 52.3 ± 2.5 min).

Conclusion:

Temporal domain influences estimates of self-reported transportation walking behavior. Current efforts to capture PA from both transportation and leisure activities in health research appear to present distinct methodological challenges.

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Kelly Mattran, Carmen Harris, Jan Jernigan and Janet Fulton

Background:

The State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2010 (SIRPA) and accompanying resources provide information for practitioners to promote physical activity. This study evaluated awareness, access, and use of materials among physical activity practitioners.

Methods:

A Web-based survey assessed awareness, access and use among respondents. The 26-item questionnaire assessed the usability of products developed by the federal government. Response frequencies and 95% confidence intervals were reported.

Results:

Response rate was 27% (135 of 508). Awareness of material was from e-mail (35.6%) or partner Websites (37.8%). One-third of respondents (33.3%) accessed materials at least once a month, but 39.3% reported no use. The SIRPA (44.4%) and state-specific action guides (34.1%) were used the most. Materials were used to compare state-specific to national data (57.0%) and to present data to the public (41.5%). Most respondents (83%) reported public health partners as a target audience, and 91.8% were likely to share information in the future.

Conclusions:

SIRPA awareness was primarily through electronic communication, and two-thirds of respondents used the materials. Respondents accessed materials for state comparisons and public distribution. Increasing the use of federal physical activity promotion materials involves considering design and dissemination features related to the needs of practitioners.

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Helene Buch Pedersen, Morten Helmer-Nielsen, Karin Brochstedt Dieperink and Birte Østergaard

Background:

Exercise on prescription (EOP) is an attempt to increase physical activity among sedentary adults with signs of lifestyle diseases. Until now, no studies have focused on patients with chronic diseases and how they assess the long-term effect of participating in EOP consisting of supervised interventions of different intensities. This study aimed to describe and compare self-reported physical activity in the long term among participants in 3 EOP modules of different intensities.

Methods:

A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1152 former participants in EOP between July 2005 and May 2007 in 2 Danish counties. Physical activity was measured as number of days with a minimum 30 minutes of moderate/vigorous activity.

Results:

Seventy-five percent (n = 854) returned the questionnaire. Of these, 36% reported being physically active ≥ 5 days/week. Comparing leisure-time activities before EOP 29% was sedentary vs. 15% (P < 0 .01) after, moderate + hard leisure-time activities was 7% before vs. 19% after EOP (P < 0 .01). Time postintervention did not influence the numbers reporting to be physical active negatively.

Conclusions:

This study in community-dwelling adults with chronic diseases participating in EOP finds that approximately one-third reported being physically active in the long term postintervention, but no differences between the modalities were found.

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Barbara E. Ainsworth, Carl J. Caspersen, Charles E. Matthews, Louise C. Mâsse, Tom Baranowski and Weimo Zhu

Context:

Assessment of physical activity using self-report has the potential for measurement error that can lead to incorrect inferences about physical activity behaviors and bias study results.

Objective:

To provide recommendations to improve the accuracy of physical activity derived from self report.

Process:

We provide an overview of presentations and a compilation of perspectives shared by the authors of this paper and workgroup members.

Findings:

We identified a conceptual framework for reducing errors using physical activity self-report questionnaires. The framework identifies 6 steps to reduce error: 1) identifying the need to measure physical activity, 2) selecting an instrument, 3) collecting data, 4) analyzing data, 5) developing a summary score, and 6) interpreting data. Underlying the first 4 steps are behavioral parameters of type, intensity, frequency, and duration of physical activities performed, activity domains, and the location where activities are performed. We identified ways to reduce measurement error at each step and made recommendations for practitioners, researchers, and organizational units to reduce error in questionnaire assessment of physical activity.

Conclusions:

Self-report measures of physical activity have a prominent role in research and practice settings. Measurement error may be reduced by applying the framework discussed in this paper.

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Lena Viktoria Kallings, Matti E. Leijon, Jan Kowalski, Mai-Lis Hellénius and Agneta Ståhle

Background:

Physical activity on prescription, as a method for increasing physical activity, has attracted attention in recent years. However, few studies have examined adherence as a primary outcome variable. The aim of this article was to examine self-reported adherence to individualized prescribed physical activity in a routine primary health care setting.

Methods:

Patients receiving an individualized physical activity on prescription (FaR) for prevention or treatment of disease were recruited from 13 Swedish primary health care units. Self-reported adherence, physical activity level, readiness to change to a more physically active lifestyle, and well-being were measured with questions at baseline and after 6 months in 240 patients (mean age 51, range 12 to 80, 75% women).

Results:

At the 6-month follow-up a majority (65%) of the patients reported adherence to the prescription. Partial adherence was reported by 19% and nonadherence by 16%. There was a relationship between adherence and well-being and stages of action or maintenance.

Conclusions:

The results demonstrate that adherence to physical activity on prescription is as good as adherence to other treatments for chronic diseases. This is significant because even a small increase in physical activity is important both on an individual level and for public health.

Open access

Hannah Wilkie, Martyn Standage, Lauren Sherar, Sean Cumming, Caley Parnell, Adrian Davis, Charlie Foster and Russ Jago

Background:

Regular physical activity improves physical and mental health, yet children’s physical activity levels were low in England’s 2014 Report Card. Within this paper, we update the 2014 Report Card to assess current information for the 9 indicators of physical activity.

Methods:

A search for nationally representative data on 9 indicators of physical activity was conducted and the data were assessed by an expert panel. The panel assigned grades [ie, A, B, C, D, F, or INC (incomplete)] to each indicator based on whether children across England were achieving specific benchmarks. The 2016 Report Card was produced and disseminated.

Results:

The following grades were awarded: Overall Physical Activity Levels: D-; Organized Sport Participation: D; Active Play: INC; Active Transportation: C-; Sedentary Behaviors: INC; Family and Peers: INC; School: B+; Community and the Built Environment: B; Government Strategies and Investment: INC.

Conclusions:

The grades have not improved since the 2014 Report Card and several gaps in the literature are still present. While children’s physical activity levels remain low alongside competing sedentary choices, further national plans and investment with local actions are urgently needed to promote physical activity especially via active play, active transport, and family support.