This case addresses the events leading up to the cancellation of the 2012 New York City Marathon in the aftermath of Superstorm Sandy. The case highlights the importance of making fair and timely decisions. The case is assembled based on newspaper accounts of the circumstances that led to New York City’s Mayor Bloomberg declaring the 2012 marathon would be held and then two days later canceling the event. The facts that were available to Mayor Bloomberg are presented in such a way that students can consider and analyze what they would have done and when, and how this may or may not differ from what actually occurred. Most importantly, the case highlights the decision-making process that many sport and event managers will encounter in the field when a weather-related event occurs in the midst of a planned athletic event. Consequently, the case provides students with an opportunity to critically examine the following: 1) how a sport organization should respond to a crisis; 2) the impact of decision-making on various event stakeholders; 3) the ethics involved in decision-making; and 4) how sport and event managers should respond to public criticism. The case is intended for use in classes focused on event management, sport ethics, and public relations.
Whitney W. Marks, Tiesha R. Martin and Stacy Warner
Maureen R. Weiss and Carl T. Hayashi
The purpose of this study was to examine parent-child influences associated with highly competitive gymnastics participation. Athletes (n = 24) responded to self-report measures of perceived parental influences, and the athletes’ parents (n = 39) responded to interview questions regarding the influence of their child’s gymnastics involvement on their own behaviors. Descriptive analyses of gymnasts’ responses revealed that parents (a) frequently attended meets, (b) encouraged their child’s participation extensively, (c) demonstrated positive affect toward their child’s involvement, and (d) held positive beliefs and realistic expectations about their child’s competence. Parents’ responses indicated large time and financial investments as a result of their child’s involvement and indicated that their child’s participation positively influenced such behaviors as (a) attendance at gymnastics meets, (b) reading sports-related literature, (c) watching sports on television, (d) participating in fitness-related activities, and (e) parenting in general. These findings support theory and research that advocate the reciprocal nature of parent-child socialization effects in sport.
Christian Cook, C. Martyn Beaven, Liam P. Kilduff and Scott Drawer
This study aimed to determine whether caffeine ingestion would increase the workload voluntarily chosen by athletes in a limited-sleep state.
In a double-blind, crossover study, 16 professional rugby players ingested either a placebo or 4 mg/kg caffeine 1 hr before exercise. Athletes classified themselves into nondeprived (8 hr+) or sleep-deprived states (6 hr or less). Exercise comprised 4 sets of bench press, squats, and bent rows at 85% 1-repetition maximum. Athletes were asked to perform as many repetitions on each set as possible without failure. Saliva was collected before administration of placebo or caffeine and again before and immediately after exercise and assayed for testosterone and cortisol.
Sleep deprivation produced a very large decrease in total load (p = 1.98 × 10−7). Caffeine ingestion in the nondeprived state resulted in a moderate increase in total load, with a larger effect in the sleep-deprived state, resulting in total load similar to those observed in the nondeprived placebo condition. Eight of the 16 athletes were identified as caffeine responders. Baseline testosterone was higher (p < .05) and cortisol trended lower in non-sleep-deprived athletes. Changes in hormones from predose to preexercise correlated to individual workload responses to caffeine. Testosterone response to exercise increased with caffeine compared with placebo, as did cortisol response.
Caffeine increased voluntary workload in professional athletes, even more so under conditions of self-reported limited sleep. Caffeine may prove worthwhile when athletes are tired, especially in those identified as responders.
Sam Minner, Greg Prater and Allan Beane
Preservice teachers from a special education undergraduate training program and inservice teachers working in special education classrooms read a descriptive vignette of a hypothetical placement meeting. All subjects were asked to assume that they felt the child being discussed needed adapted physical education, but that no person in their local school district was trained to provide such services. In short, a “professional dilemma” was devised. After reading the vignette, subjects responded to several questions that assessed their willingness to recommend that the student be provided with the necessary service and the potential impact of this recommendation. Results indicated that both groups were willing to recommend the service but that the inservice group was more fearful of negative repercussions.
Keven A. Prusak, Tirza Davis, Todd R. Pennington and Carol Wilkinson
Couched in attitude theory, this follow-up study examines children-voiced perceptions of enjoyment and usefulness toward a district mandated elementary physical education (PE) program. Attitudes of 277 5th and 6th grade males and females from four representative schools from within a district were assessed in a mixed methods study. Survey results were analyzed to examine between groups, schools (based on SES), and gender differences. Twelve males and twelve females were selected from lowest and highest survey responders for follow-up interviews. Survey results indicated a generally positive attitudes (enjoyment: M = 2.71, SD = 0.35; usefulness M =2.69, SD = 0.35) with significant enjoyment differences (F(3, 266) = 5.627, p ≤ .001) noted between schools. Qualitative results define quality PE as enjoyable and useful when it (a) provided a fun, social, learning environment and activities, (b) made an impact on healthy knowledge and behaviors, and (c) consisted of well managed classes taught by engaging teachers.
Phillip Ward and Mary O’Sullivan
The present investigation reports on changes in the pedagogy and content of one teacher as a function of experience. The teacher was observed in Year 2 and in Year 6 teaching basketball and gymnastics in the same school. Data were collected using direct observations from videotapes of the lessons and semistructured interviews. Direct observation categories included lesson time, content type and sequence, instructional methods, teacher interactions, and student opportunities to respond. Three interviews were conducted with questions derived from videotape observation. A comparison of instructional units conducted in Year 2 and Year 6 reveals similarities in the pedagogical organization of the lessons, but differences in the content; less skill development occurred in Year 6 than in Year 2. Interviews revealed that skill expectations were less in Year 6 than they were in Year 2. These findings are interpreted in terms of three recurring themes: pedagogical reductionism, typicality, and isolation.
Richard H. Cox and Larry Noble
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the level of preparation of high school head coaches in the state of Kansas and to study the relationship between level of preparation and coaches’ strong beliefs regarding the importance of coaching competencies. Through random sampling procedures, a total of 1,178 high school coaches received a first time mailing of a questionnaire. The return rate after two mailings was 91%. Of the 1,070 head coaches who responded to the survey, 62.5% had either majored or minored in physical education. The correlation between the number of coaching courses taken and the sum of strong belief statement scores was a low but significant .35. ANOVA and MANOVA procedures revealed that coaches who were not formally trained in each competency area exhibited diminished appreciation for the importance of that respective competency.
Koen Put, Marcus V.C. Baldo, André M. Cravo, Johan Wagemans and Werner F. Helsen
In association football, the flash-lag effect appears to be a viable explanation for erroneous offside decision making. Due to this spatiotemporal illusion, assistant referees (ARs) perceive the player who receives the ball ahead of his real position. In this experiment, a laboratory decision-making task was used to demonstrate that international top-class ARs, compared with amateur soccer players, do not have superior perceptual sensitivity. They clearly modify their decision criterion according to the contextual needs and, therefore, show a higher response bias toward not responding to the stimulus, in particular in the most difficult situations. Thus, international ARs show evidence for response-level compensation, resulting in a specific cost (i.e., more misses), which clearly reflects the use of particular (cognitive) strategies. In summary, it appears that experts in offside decision making can be distinguished from novices more on the cognitive or decision-making level than on the perceptual level.
Angela Lumpkin and Rebecca M. Achen
Despite what many claim, just because there is teaching does not mean there is learning. Clear and convincing evidence supports changing the instructional paradigm to a learner-centered classroom. Flipping a class shifts the delivery, often through technologically presented lectures, to free class time for student participation in a plethora of learning activities, such as think-pair-share and discussions, leading to student perceptions of greater learning and more enjoyment. In an action research approach with one class, 72% of juniors and seniors in an undergraduate sport finance and economics class reported out-of-class lectures often positively impacted their learning, and the remaining 28% responded these lectures did sometimes. End-of-course evaluations and surveys were overwhelmingly positive about class engagement, interaction, and enjoyment.
Murray F. Mitchell
The purpose of this study was to determine why and how a sample of physical education teacher education (PETE) scholars manage to be productive publishers. Authors or coauthors of four or more articles in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education (JTPE) through the 1980s (N = 24) responded to a mail questionnaire on why they write, why they choose to write for JTPE, what they believe to be true about themselves or their approach to writing, and any situational factors that have led to their publication success. Authors described personal motives such as publishing to meet a curiosity drive, for the enjoyment of the process, to facilitate learning, and to lead toward promotion and raises. Facilitators of the process included having access to colleagues and mentors and having a personal commitment to pursue publication. These findings are discussed with regard to insights available for administrators and novice faculty members.