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Walter S. Weinstein and Andrew W. Meyers

The present review examined the premise that running is a useful therapeutic strategy in the treatment of depressive states. Four of the major theoretical treatment models of depression were outlined to demonstrate how each conceptualized the relationship of running to improvement in mood. Research was then examined that linked running to improvement in psychological variables other than depression. Finally, research directly pertaining to the effects of running on depression was reviewed. Discussion of conceptual and methodological problems of this research indicated that definitive conclusions regarding the antidepressant properties of running are currently unwarranted. Specific guidelines and refinements for future research were provided.

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Jan Schroeder, Franziska Erthel and Karsten Hollander

, swimming, and running, but not after cycling. 2 – 6 It was hypothesized that sport-associated direct and indirect impacts might generate damage to central nervous tissue. However, it has to be considered that these biomarkers are not only associated with central nervous processes but could also be due to

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Arturo Casado and Andrew Renfree

several studies have investigated pacing strategies in middle-distance (800 and 1500 m) running events, assessed through distribution of speeds over race segments, 2 – 4 other work has examined the influence of tactical positioning at intermediate points on finishing position. 5 Tactical issues are

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Anna E. Chalkley, Ash C. Routen, Jo P. Harris, Lorraine A. Cale, Trish Gorely and Lauren B. Sherar

of school-based running programs as a means to increase pupils’ physical activity has grown exponentially with such initiatives being endorsed as a practical and cost-effective strategy that schools may wish to adopt ( Department of Health, 2018 ; Scottish Government, 2017 ; Welsh Government, 2017

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Gi Broman, Miguel Quintana, Margareta Engardt, Lennart Gullstrand, Eva Jansson and Lennart Kaijser

The aim of the study was to examine submaximal and maximal physiological responses and perceived exertion during deep-water running with a vest compared with the responses during treadmill running in healthy elderly women. Eleven healthy women 70 ± 2 years old participated. On two different occasions they performed a graded maximal exercise test on a treadmill on land and a graded maximal exercise test in water wearing a vest. At maximal work the oxygen uptake was 29% lower (p < .05), the heart rate was 8% lower (p < .05), and the ventilation was 16% lower (p < .05) during deep-water running than during treadmill running. During submaximal absolute work the heart rate was higher during deep-water running than during treadmill running for the elderly women. The participants had lower maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, ventilation, respiratory-exchange ratio, and rate of perceived exertion during maximal deep-water running with a vest than during maximal treadmill running. These responses were, however, higher during submaximal deep-water running than during treadmill running.

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Paola Rodriguez-Giustiniani, Ian Rollo, Oliver C. Witard and Stuart D. R. Galloway

intermittent exercise is evidenced by the previously reported better maintenance of high-intensity running capacity ( McGregor et al., 1999 ). Several studies have demonstrated that consuming carbohydrate beverages before and at regular intervals during sporting activities improves subsequent high

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Iain Hannah, Andy Harland, Dan Price, Heiko Schlarb and Tim Lucas

A dynamic finite element model of a shod running footstrike was developed and driven with 6 degree of freedom foot segment kinematics determined from a motion capture running trial. Quadratic tetrahedral elements were used to mesh the footwear components with material models determined from appropriate mechanical tests. Model outputs were compared with experimental high-speed video (HSV) footage, vertical ground reaction force (GRF), and center of pressure (COP) excursion to determine whether such an approach is appropriate for the development of athletic footwear. Although unquantified, good visual agreement to the HSV footage was observed but significant discrepancies were found between the model and experimental GRF and COP readings (9% and 61% of model readings outside of the mean experimental reading ± 2 standard deviations, respectively). Model output was also found to be highly sensitive to input kinematics with a 120% increase in maximum GRF observed when translating the force platform 2 mm vertically. While representing an alternative approach to existing dynamic finite element footstrike models, loading highly representative of an experimental trial was not found to be achievable when employing exclusively kinematic boundary conditions. This significantly limits the usefulness of employing such an approach in the footwear development process.

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Dorsey Shelton Williams and Wesley Isom

Knee varus position and motion have been correlated with increased medial knee loading during gait. The purpose of this study is to determine whether runners with excessive varus excursion (EVE) at the knee demonstrate frontal plane knee and hip kinetics that are different from those of runners with normal varus excursion (NVE). Twelve runners with EVE were compared with 12 NVE subjects using three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics. Frontal plane angles and moments were compared at the knee and hip. Runners with EVE had significantly greater abductor moment of the knee (p = .004) and lower peak abductor moment of the hip (p = .047). Runners with EVE demonstrate knee and hip mechanics thought to be associated with increased medial tibiofemoral loading. Further understanding of how changing hip abductor moments may affect changes in knee abductor moments during running may potentially lead to interventions that augment long-term risk of injury.

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Philip Hurst, Lieke Schipof-Godart, Florentina Hettinga, Bart Roelands and Chris Beedie

authors’ knowledge, no study has investigated the effects of a placebo treatment on pacing strategy. In this study, we used a balanced placebo design to examine the placebo effects of caffeine on pacing strategy and performance over 1000-m running time trials. By using a balanced placebo design, we

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George Vagenas and Blaine Hoshizaki

This study investigated the phenomenon of kinematic asymmetry of the lower limbs in distance runners. The subjects, 29 male distance runners, were recorded by high-speed filming while running on a motor driven treadmill under two experimental conditions (with running shoes and barefoot). Twelve selected kinematic variables were subjected to multivariate statistical analysis. It was demonstrated that the lower limbs of distance runners possess a multifaceted kinematic asymmetry for touchdown and foot contact as well as for the entire phase of foot support of the running stride. Significant kinematic asymmetries were found in the lower leg angle, rearfoot angle, mediolateral velocity of the foot, and in some temporal variables. Contemporary running shoes seem to significantly change the degree of rearfoot control asymmetry observed in normal barefoot running. The findings of the present study confirm previous data suggesting that the phenomenon of kinematic asymmetry in runners is warranted.