The purpose of this study was to evaluate the common assumption that teachers of color (TOC) are more culturally competent than White teachers by assessing physical education teachers’ cultural competency. A secondary purpose was to ascertain the possible differences in cultural competence levels of White teachers in diverse school settings versus those in more racially homogenous schools. One hundred and ninety physical education teachers from two states in the southeastern U.S. completed a demographic questionnaire and the Multicultural Teaching Competency Scale (MTCS) (Spanierman et al., 2006). The MTCS consists of two subscales; multicultural teaching knowledge (MTK), and multicultural teaching skills (MTS). MANCOVA analyses indicated significant differences with TOC scoring higher in both MTK and MTS than White teachers. Results also indicated that White teachers in city school settings scored significantly higher in MTK than those from more rural school. Results and implications for teacher preparation and professional development are discussed.
Louis Harrison, Russell L. Carson and Joe Burden
Luis Miguel Ruiz, Jose Luis Graupera, Juan Antonio Moreno and Isabel Rico
The purpose of the current study was to explore social interaction preferences for learning in Physical Education (PE) among Spanish secondary students. The sample consists of 6,654 students (3,500 girls and 3,154 boys, aged 12–17 years) from public and private urban and rural schools in two communities in Spain. All participants completed the Graupera/Ruiz Scale of Social Interaction Preferences in PE Learning (GR–SIPPEL) which explores four learning preference dimensions: cooperation, competition, affiliation, and individualism. Results indicated that the ordinal profile of students’ preferences in PE classes was: cooperative (very high preference), competitive and affiliate (high-moderate preference), and individualistic (moderate-low preference). Gender differences emerged: girls were less competitive and individualistic than boys, and slightly more cooperative and affiliate. Weak grade level differences were also observed.
Hans van der Mars
Audiocueing by way of a microcassette recorder was used to change a female student teacher’s (S1) use of verbal praise of students’ overall class behavior. A second student teacher’s (S2) behavior teaching in the same setting was used as concurrent baseline measure. Both subjects taught K-3 classes at a rural elementary school. An ABAB reversal design was used to determine the relationship between the intervention and dependent variables. Results showed that when audiocues were introduced, verbal praise rate increased significantly. Upon removal of the audiocues, the rate of verbal praise decreased gradually. Percentage of specific verbal praise also increased upon presentation of audiocues. Experimental significance found through visual inspection of graphic data was supported statistically by f-test results. Findings of the exit interview with S1 are included. Suggestions for further research are provided.
This study investigated whether the teacher behavior of refinement would affect boys’ and girls’ achievement in the standing broad jump across grade levels kindergarten through 6th grade. The study took place in a public school rural setting using intact classes involving 529 students. A nonequivalent control-group design was used for the experiment. All subjects were pretested and posttested. A posttest took place immediately following the experiment and after a time span of 7 months. The posttest scores were analyzed using an analysis of covariance at each grade level. From the analysis of the data, it was concluded that the teacher behavior of refinement did have both immediate and long-term positive effects on student achievement in performing the standing broad jump.
Marc S. Mitchell, Catherine A. Gaul, Patti-Jean Naylor and Constadina Panagiotopoulos
The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and objectively measured habitual moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in First Nations youth. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2 rural villages in northern British Columbia, Canada. Thirty-nine healthy youth (16 males and 23 females; age = 11.8yrs ± 2.2; range = 8.8–18.5yrs) participated. PA was measured with ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers. The homeostasis model assessment estimate of IR (HOMA-IR) was used to define IR. Duration of MVPA was inversely related to HOMA-IR (r=−.44, p < .01). From the regression model, 30 min of habitual MVPA corresponded to HOMA-IR levels that were 15% lower. In conclusion, these findings suggest that active First Nations youth have lower HOMA-IR values.
Emily M. Jones, Jun-hyung Baek and James D. Wyant
The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing preservice teachers’ (PST) experiences integrating technology within a guided action-based research project in the context of student teaching.
Participants were enrolled at a rural, mid-Atlantic university (N = 80, 53 male; 27 female). Researchers retrieved archived data from five semesters of physical education (PE) student teaching cohorts. Data sources included: Technology Action Research Project poster presentations (n = 75) and reflective journal entries (n = 234). All identifiable information was removed, and qualitative data were analyzed inductively.
Three themes and subthemes emerged Student Clientele, Self as Teacher, and Others as Systems of Support as contributing agents in PSTs’ experiences integrating technology.
Results of this study support technology-rich field-based experiences for PSTs that are guided by an action research framework. Findings enhance our understanding of factors that facilitate and hinder early career PE teachers use of technology in teaching and learning settings.
Rochelle Eime, Jack Harvey and Warren Payne
To examine the dose-response relationship between health related quality of life (HRQoL) and life satisfaction (outcomes) and duration of recreational physical activity (exposure). Further, to explore whether these relationships depend on type of physical activity (PA).
793 Australian rural-living women self-reported on duration of recreational PA; HRQoL via SF-36 Mental Component Summary (MCS) and Physical Component Summary (PCS); and a life satisfaction scale. ANOVAs and ANCOVAs investigated differences in outcomes (MCS, PCS, and life satisfaction) between tertiles of exposure to recreational PA, and types of PA (club sport, gymnasium, walking), with adjustment for potential confounders.
A significant positive dose-response relationship was found between PCS and level of PA. Furthermore, this relationship depended on type of PA, with club-sport participants recording higher PCS than non-club-sport participants in all but the highest tertile of exposure. Life satisfaction and MCS were not significantly related to level of PA.
Physical health was positively associated with level of recreational PA, with club sport participation contributing greater benefits at low to moderate exposures than participation in gymnasium or walking activities.
Melinda Jane Craike, Remco Polman, Rochelle Eime, Caroline Symons, Jack Harvey and Warren Payne
This study investigated the association between the different types of behavior regulation and competence on sport and physical activity (PA) and perceived health, and the influence of school year level (ie, year 7 and year 11) and setting (ie, metropolitan and rural) on these relationships.
A cross sectional self-complete survey was conducted. Competence was measured using the 5-item perceived competence subscale of the 21-item Athletic Identity Questionnaire (AIQ); behavior regulation was measured using a modified version of the Behavior Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ-2); PA was measured using an item to assess if adolescents are meeting recommended levels of PA; and perceived health was measured using the Short Form 1 (SF-1).
This study included 732 participants, 71.2% from metropolitan schools, and 66.8% in year 7. Self-determined behavior regulation and competence were positively associated with PA and health. Intrinsic motivation was more strongly related to older adolescents’ PA than it was for younger adolescents. Behavior regulators and competence were more strongly associated with health than PA.
The findings of this study suggest that strategies that enhance intrinsic motivation and PA competence may improve the health of adolescent females; enhancing these may lead to greater health regardless of level of PA.
Michael L. Booth, Anthony D. Okely, Tien Chey and Adrian E. Bauman
This study examined the pattern of activity energy expenditure (AEE) among New South Wales (NSW) high school students in relation to age, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), place of residence, cultural background, season, participation in moderate- and vigorous-intensity and in organized and non-organized physical activity.
Cross-sectional survey of a randomly-selected sample (N = 2026). Respondents self-reported their physical activity participation during a usual week in summer and winter.
Boys reported greater AEE than girls and, whereas AEE was greater among grade 10 than grade 8 boys, the reverse was true for girls. Boys reported the same AEE for summer and winter, but girls reported less AEE during winter. Both boys and girls reported spending the same proportion of their AEE in vigorous-intensity (72%) compared with moderate-intensity activity (28%) and in non-organized (60%) compared with organized activity. There was no clear association between urban/rural place of residence and AEE. Although AEE tended to be positively associated with SES among girls, there was no association among boys. Girls from Asian cultural backgrounds reported much lower AEE than girls from other cultural backgrounds.
Patterns of energy expenditure among adolescent boys and girls should be considered in developing interventions to ensure needs are adequately met.
Kim Jose and Emily Hansen
Leisure-time physical activity is a term used by physical activity researchers to describe physical activity undertaken during nonwork time. In this study we explore how young people speak about physical activity in relation to leisure.
Eight focus groups and one group interview were conducted with 50 participants aged 16−26 years. Participants included males and females, rural and urban dwellers, and a mixture of active/inactive young people. Focus group transcripts underwent an iterative thematic analysis.
Participants found it difficult to recognize leisure time activities in their day to day lives and only rarely mentioned their physical activity involvement when asked about leisure time activities. When discussing physical activity study participants commonly focused on high intensity physical activity such as sport and gym use. Three major themes relating to leisure and physical activity were identified: the meanings ascribed to physical activity, the experience of physical activity, and routines of participation.
These findings suggest that the relationship between physical activity and leisure is complex and the term leisure with its associated concepts of satisfaction, relaxation and pleasure may not accurately reflect the way young people view their participation in physical activity.