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Salih A. Salih, Nancye M. Peel, Di Enright and Wendy Marshall

capacity to perform. This relationship between MBI and walking time in the community has not been reported before. Promoting PA and aiming to achieve a clinically meaningful improvement in PA level in older persons has been shown to be challenging, as it requires changing behavior to reduce sedentary time

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Abigail L. Gilbert, Jungwha Lee, Madeleine Ma, Pamela A. Semanik, Loretta DiPietro, Dorothy D. Dunlop and Rowland W. Chang

Background:

Sedentary behavior is associated with increased risk of functional decline and disability. Individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) spend more time sedentary than healthy adults. Self-reported assessment of sedentary behavior has not been well-developed in this patient population.

Methods:

172 adults with RA wore an accelerometer for 7 days and completed a modified version of the Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS). YPAS-derived sedentary estimates included 1) daily sitting categories (<3, 3 to 6, 6 to 8, >8 hours/day), 2) continuous daily sedentary time calculated by subtracting hours spent sleeping or in physical activity from a 24-hour day, and 3) rank order of YPAS-derived continuous daily sedentary time. Each estimate was compared with objective accelerometer-derived sedentary time using linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis.

Results:

A significant relationship was observed between accelerometer-derived sedentary time and all 3 estimates. Bland-Altman plot demonstrated systematic bias, however Bland-Altman plot of rank-order demonstrated that the ranked YPAS-derived continuous estimate was an unbiased predictor of ranked accelerometer sedentary time though limits of agreement were wide.

Conclusions:

This patient-reported approach using the YPAS shows promise to be a useful tool to identify the most sedentary patients. Providing a practical and accurate tool may increase the frequency sedentary behavior is assessed by clinicians.

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Valerie Carson, Michelle Stone and Guy Faulkner

To make robust conclusions regarding the association between accelerometer-measured sedentary time and overweight and obesity among children, several gaps in the literature must be addressed. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between sedentary time, weekday sedentary time, weekend sedentary time, sedentary bouts, sedentary breaks, and BMI z-score among children and by low (bottom 50%) and high (top 50%) moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) participation. Results are based on 787 children aged 11 years living in Toronto, Canada. Children’s physical activity and sedentary time were objectively assessed using ActiGraph accelerometers in 2010/11. Height and weight were measured and BMI z-scores were calculated based on the World Health Organization growth standards. When participants were stratified into low and high MVPA groups, sedentary bouts of 5–9 (β = 0.22 [95% CI: 0.01, 0.43]) and 10–19 (0.30 [−0.05, 0.55]) minutes for total days were associated with BMI z-score in the low MVPA group only. Similar trends were observed with the weekday but not the weekend variables. Therefore, in addition to increasing MVPA, reducing time spent in 5- to 19-min sedentary bouts may have important implications for weight status particularly for children with lower MVPA participation during the week.

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Marie-Louise Bird, Cecilia Shing, Casey Mainsbridge, Dean Cooley and Scott Pedersen

Background:

Sedentary behavior is related to metabolic syndrome and might have implications for the long-term health of workers in a low activity environment. The primary aim of this pilot study was to determine activity levels of adults working at a University during work hours. A secondary aim was to determine the relationship between actual and perceived activity levels.

Methods:

Activity levels of university staff (n = 15, male = 7, age = 53 ± 7 years, BMI = 26.5 ± 2.5kg·m2) were monitored over 5 consecutive workdays using SenseWear accelerometers, then participants completed a questionnaire of their perception of workplace sedentary time.

Results:

Each participant spent 71.5 ± 13.1% (358 ± 78 min) of their workday being sedentary (< 1.5 METs), 15.6 ± 9.0% involved in light activity (1.5–3 METs), 11.7 ± 10.0% in moderate activity (3–5 METs), and 1.1 ± 1.3% in vigorous activity (> 5 METs) (P < .0001). The mean difference between actual (SenseWear < 1.5 METs) and perceived sitting time was –2 ± 32%; however, perceived sedentary time was reported with a range of under-to-over estimation of –75% to 51%.

Conclusion:

This pilot study identifies long periods of low metabolic activity during the workday and poor perception of individual sedentary time. Interventions to reduce sedentary time in the workplace may be necessary to ensure that the work environment does not adversely affect long-term health.

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Scott E. Crouter, Diane M. DellaValle, Jere D. Haas, Edward A. Frongillo and David R. Bassett

Background:

The purpose of this study was to compare the 2006 and 2010 Crouter algorithms for the ActiGraph accelerometer and the NHANES and Matthews cut-points, to indirect calorimetry during a 6-hr free-living measurement period.

Methods:

Twenty-nine participants (mean ± SD; age, 38 ± 11.7 yrs; BMI, 25.0 ± 4.6 kg·m-2) were monitored for 6 hours while at work or during their leisure time. Physical activity (PA) data were collected using an ActiGraph GT1M and energy expenditure (METs) was measured using a Cosmed K4b2. ActiGraph prediction equations were compared with the Cosmed for METs and time spent in sedentary behaviors, light PA (LPA), moderate PA (MPA), and vigorous PA (VPA).

Results:

The 2010 Crouter algorithm overestimated time spent in LPA, MPA, and VPA by 9.0%−44.5% and underestimated sedentary time by 20.8%. The NHANES cut-points overestimated sedentary time and LPA by 8.3%−9.9% and underestimated MPA and VPA by 50.4%−56.7%. The Matthews cut-points overestimated sedentary time (9.9%) and MPA (33.4%) and underestimated LPA (25.7%) and VPA (50.1%). The 2006 Crouter algorithm was within 1.8% of measured sedentary time; however, mean errors ranged from 34.4%−163.1% for LPA, MPA, and VPA.

Conclusion:

Of the ActiGraph prediction methods examined, none of them was clearly superior for estimating free-living PA compared with indirect calorimetry.

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Clare Hume, Anna Timperio, Jenny Veitch, Jo Salmon, David Crawford and Kylie Ball

Background:

This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and depressive symptoms among adolescents.

Methods:

Participants were 155 adolescents (14.4 years ± 0.61) in 2004 (40% boys). Data collection occurred in 2004 and again in 2006. At both time points, participants completed the Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC), from which they were classified as having depressive symptoms (≥15) or not (<15). Organized sport and TV viewing were self-reported and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) and vigorous (VPA) physical activity and sedentary time were objectively measured. Logistic and linear regression analyses examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between MVPA, VPA, organized sport, TV viewing, sedentary time, and symptoms of depression.

Results:

There were no cross-sectional or longitudinal associations between MVPA, VPA, organized sport, sedentary time, and symptoms of depression among boys or girls. However, having symptoms of depression in 2004 did predict higher TV viewing among adolescent girls in 2006 (approximately 168 minutes/week more TV viewing; P ≤ .001).

Conclusions:

MVPA, VPA, organized sport and objectively-measured sedentary time appeared unrelated to depressive symptoms in this sample, but depressive symptoms predicted increased TV viewing over time among adolescent girls. Further research is required to determine the clinical relevance of this finding.

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Jo Salmon

Physical activity and sedentary behavior (performed primarily while sitting) play a key role in the current and future health of young people. Most health evidence and intervention strategies targeting reductions in children’s sedentary behavior have focused on television viewing, with mixed evidence as to the effectiveness of these strategies and of the importance of television viewing for children’s health. Evidence from studies with adults using objective measures of sedentary behavior suggests that accumulated sedentary time is independently associated with metabolic health; importantly, emerging evidence suggests that the manner in which the sedentary behavior is accrued (ie, frequency of interruptions to time spent sedentary) may also have independent effects on health. Potential novel intervention approaches to reduce children’s sedentary time include activity breaks during class time at school, delivery of active lessons and homework, and changes to the classroom environment. Further evidence of the importance of sedentary time (both total accumulation and frequency of interruptions) on children’s health is required. Future studies should assess the effectiveness of interventions targeting organizational and pedagogical changes in schools as well as using homework to engage with families in more active ways.

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Stacy A. Clemes, Beverley M. David, Yi Zhao, Xu Han and Wendy Brown

Background:

In light of evidence linking sedentary behaviors to health outcomes, there have been calls for the measurement of sedentary behavior in surveillance studies. This study examined the convergent validity of 2 self-report measures of sitting time and accelerometer-determined sedentary time (minutes/day of <100 counts/minute).

Methods:

44 adults wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for 7 days, during which they also recorded daily sitting time in a diary, in response to a single-item question. After 7 days, participants completed a new domain-specific questionnaire to assess usual weekday and weekend-day sitting time. Total sitting times recorded from the self-report measures were compared with accelerometer-determined sedentary time.

Results:

Total sitting time calculated from the domain-specific questionnaire did not differ significantly from accelerometer-determined sedentary time on weekdays (mean difference [±SE] = –14 ± 28 mins/day) and weekend days (–4 ± 45 mins/day, both P > .05). Sitting time was significantly underestimated using the single-item specific-day question on weekdays (–173 ± 18 mins/day) and weekend days (–219 ± 23 mins/day, both P < .001).

Conclusions:

When assessed via self-report, the estimation of total sitting time is improved by summing sitting times reported across different domains. The continued improvement of self-report measures of sitting time will be important if we are to further our understanding of the links between sedentary behavior and health.

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Eimear Keane, Xia Li, Janas M. Harrington, Anthony P. Fitzgerald, Ivan J. Perry and Patricia M. Kearney

Purpose:

Globally, public health policies are targeting modifiable lifestyle behaviors. We explore the independent association of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior on the risk of childhood overweight/obesity.

Method:

A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–11 years (N = 826). Objective body mass index was used to classify children as normal weight or overweight/obese. Children wore wrist-worn Geneactiv accelerometers for 7-days and thresholds were applied to categorize MVPA and sedentary time. Screen time (ST) was parent reported. Poisson regression examined the independent association of (1) MVPA (2), objective sedentary time and (3) ST on the risk of overweight/obesity.

Results:

Overall, 23.7% (95% CI, 20.8–26.6%) of children were overweight/obese. On average, children spent 10.8% of waking time at MVPA and 61.3% sedentary. One-fifth (22.1%, 95% CI, 19.3–25.0%) of children achieved MVPA recommendations (≥ 60 min each day) and 17.5% (95% CI, 14.9–20.1%) met ST recommendations (<2 hr per day). Time spent at MVPA was inversely associated with the risk of overweight/obese independent of total sedentary time. Total time spent sedentary was not associated with overweight/obese independent of MVPA. ST was associated with an increased risk of overweight/obese independent of physical activity.

Conclusion:

Few schoolchildren met physical activity and screen time recommendations suggesting population based measures are needed.

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Josef Mitáš, Ding Ding, Karel Frömel and Jacqueline Kerr

Background:

Post-communist countries have experienced rapid economic development and social changes, which have been accompanied by changes in health-related lifestyle behaviors, such as physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of domain-specific physical activity and total sedentary time with BMI among adults in the Czech Republic.

Methods:

We surveyed a nationally representative sample (n = 4097) of the Czech Republic in fall 2007 using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long form). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine associations of physical activity, sedentary time and sociodemograhic characteristics with BMI.

Results:

Older age, lower educational attainment, and lower levels of leisure-time physical activity were associated with higher BMI. Compared with those living in large cities, men living in small towns and women living in small villages had higher BMI.

Conclusions:

This study has identified correlates of BMI in the Czech Republic. Although more evidence from longitudinal studies is needed, findings from the current study can inform interventions to prevent the rising obesity epidemic.