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Helen Elizabeth Brown, Nicola Burton, Nicholas David Gilson and Wendy Brown

Background:

An emerging area of interest in workplace health is presenteeism; the measurable extent to which physical or psychosocial symptoms, conditions and disease adversely affect the work productivity of those who choose to remain at work. Given established links between presenteeism and health, and health and physical activity, presenteeism could be an important outcome in workplace physical activity research. This study provides a narrative review of questionnaires for use in such research.

Methods:

Eight self-report measures of presenteeism were identified. Information regarding development, constructs measured and psychometric properties was extracted from relevant articles.

Results:

Questionnaires were largely self-administered, had 4–44 items, and recall periods ranging from 1 week to 1 year. Items were identified as assessing work performance, physical tolerance, psychological well-being and social or role functioning. Samples used to test questionnaires were predominantly American male employees, with an age range of 30–59 years. All instruments had undergone psychometric assessment, most commonly discriminant and construct validity.

Conclusion:

Based on instrument characteristics, the range of conceptual foci covered and acceptable measurement properties, the Health and Work Questionnaire, Work Ability Index, and Work Limitations Questionnaire are suggested as most suitable for further exploring the relationship between physical activity and presenteeism.

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Robin T. Thorpe, Greg Atkinson, Barry Drust and Warren Gregson

The increase in competition demands in elite team sports over recent years has prompted much attention from researchers and practitioners to the monitoring of adaptation and fatigue in athletes. Monitoring fatigue and gaining an understanding of athlete status may also provide insights and beneficial information pertaining to player availability, injury, and illness risk. Traditional methods used to quantify recovery and fatigue in team sports, such as maximal physical-performance assessments, may not be feasible to detect variations in fatigue status throughout competitive periods. Faster, simpler, and nonexhaustive tests such as athlete self-report measures, autonomic nervous system response via heart-rate-derived indices, and to a lesser extent, jump protocols may serve as promising tools to quantify and establish fatigue status in elite team-sport athletes. The robust rationalization and precise detection of a meaningful fluctuation in these measures are of paramount importance for practitioners working alongside athletes and coaches on a daily basis. There are various methods for arriving at a minimal clinically important difference, but these have been rarely adopted by sport scientists and practitioners. The implementation of appropriate, reliable, and sensitive measures of fatigue can provide important information to key stakeholders in team-sport environments. Future research is required to investigate the sensitivity of these tools to fundamental indicators such as performance, injury, and illness.

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Hayley Perelman, Joanna Buscemi, Elizabeth Dougherty and Alissa Haedt-Matt

Body dissatisfaction is associated with marked distress and often precipitates disordered eating symptomology. Literature on body dissatisfaction in athletes appears to be mixed, perhaps because athletes vary along several key characteristics related to how they experience their bodies. This study sought to investigate group differences in body dissatisfaction between sex (men vs. women), sport type (lean-promoting vs. non-lean-promoting), and division level (Division I vs. Division III). Collegiate athletes (N = 191) completed a self-report measure of body dissatisfaction, demographics, and sport characteristics. A factorial ANOVA revealed that women reported greater body dissatisfaction compared to men regardless of division level and sport type. There was an interaction between sex and sport type such that men in lean-promoting sports reported greater body dissatisfaction than men in non-lean-promoting sports. Findings suggest that some athletes participating in lean-promoting sports may be at risk of developing significant body dissatisfaction. Research on body dissatisfaction in collegiate athletes can be used to develop clinical interventions that aim to reduce body dissatisfaction and the potential of developing disordered eating and related psychopathology.

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Winnie Y.H. Lee, Bronwyn K. Clark, Elisabeth Winkler, Elizabeth G. Eakin and Marina M. Reeves

Background:

This study evaluated the responsiveness to change in physical activity of 2 self-report measures and an accelerometer in the context of a weight loss intervention trial.

Methods:

302 participants (aged 20 to 75 years) with type 2 diabetes were randomized into telephone counseling (n = 151) or usual care (n = 151) groups. Physical activity (minutes/week) was assessed at baseline and 6-months using the Active Australia Survey (AAS), the United States National Health Interview Survey (USNHIS) walking for exercise items, and accelerometer (Actigraph GT1M; ≥1952 counts/minute). Responsiveness to change was calculated as responsiveness index (RI), Cohen’s d (postscores) and Cohen’s d (change-scores).

Results:

All instruments showed significant improvement in the intervention group (P < .001) and no significant change for usual care (P > .05). Accelerometer consistently ranked as the most responsive instrument while the least responsive was the USHNIS (responsiveness index) or AAS (Cohen’s d). RIs for AAS, USNHIS and accelerometer did not differ significantly and were, respectively: 0.45 (95% CI: 0.26–0.65); 0.38 (95% CI: 0.20–0.56); and, 0.49 (95% CI: 0.23–0.74).

Conclusions:

Accelerometer tended to have the highest responsiveness but differences were small and not statistically significant. Consideration of factors, such as validity, feasibility and cost, in addition to responsiveness, is important for instrument selection in future trials

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Sarah J. Fraser, Justin J. Chapman, Wendy J. Brown, Harvey A. Whiteford and Nicola W. Burton

Background:

The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using questionnaires and accelerometers to measure physical activity and sedentary behavior among inpatient adults with mental illness.

Methods:

Participants completed a physical activity and sitting time questionnaire and wore an accelerometer for 7 consecutive days. Feasibility was assessed in terms of participant engagement, self-reported ease/difficulty of completing study components, extreme self-report data values and adherence to accelerometer wear time criteria. Ease/difficulty ratings were examined by level of distress.

Results:

177 inpatients were invited to the study, 101 completed the questionnaires and 36 provided valid accelerometry data. Participants found it more difficult to complete sitting time and physical activity questionnaires than to wear the accelerometer during waking hours (z = 3.787, P < .001; z = 2.824, P = .005 respectively). No significant differences were found in ease/difficulty ratings by level of distress for any of the study components. Extreme values for self-reported sitting time were identified in 27% of participants.

Conclusion:

Inpatient adults with mental illness can engage with self-report and objective methods of measuring physical activity and sedentary behavior. They were initially less willing to participate in objective measurement, which may however be more feasible than self-report measures.

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Martin S. Hagger, Nikos L.D. Chatzisarantis, Vassilis Barkoukis, John C.K. Wang, Vello Hein, Maret Pihu, Istvan Soós and Istvan Karsai

The present study tested the cross-cultural generalizability of the measurement and structural parameters of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) among youth in a physical activity context. Pupils from five cultural groups completed measures of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and intentions for physical activity. Five weeks later, participants completed self-report measures of physical activity behavior. Confirmatory factor analyses and multisample structural equation models revealed well-fitting models within each sample with minimal variations in the measurement parameters across cultures. There were a few significant cross-cultural differences in the structural relations among the TPB constructs. Attitudes predicted intentions in all samples (β range = .300 to .550), whereas the effect of the subjective norms on intention was nonsignificant in all but the Hungarian sample (β = .243). Conversely, the effect of PBC on intentions was significant (β range = .302 to .573) in all but the Hungarian sample. Findings support the generalizability of the measures and pattern of effects for the TPB among young people in a physical activity context.

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Ruth L. Chimenti, Sara A. Scholtes and Linda R. Van Dillen

Many risk factors have been identified as contributing to the development or persistence of low back pain (LBP). However, the juxtaposition of both high and low levels of physical activity being associated with LBP reflects the complexity of the relationship between a risk factor and LBP. Moreover, not everyone with an identified risk factor, such as a movement pattern of increased lumbopelvic rotation, has LBP.

Objective:

The purpose of this study was to examine differences in activity level and movement patterns between people with and people without chronic or recurrent LBP who participate in rotation-related sports.

Design Case:

Case-control study.

Setting:

University laboratory environment.

Participants:

52 people with chronic or recurrent LBP and 25 people without LBP who all play a rotation-related sport.

Main Outcome Measures:

Participants completed self-report measures including the Baecke Habitual Activity Questionnaire and a questionnaire on rotation-related sports. A 3-dimensional motion-capture system was used to collect movement-pattern variables during 2 lower-limb-movement tests.

Results:

Compared with people without LBP, people with LBP reported a greater difference between the sport subscore and an average work and leisure composite subscore on the Baecke Habitual Activity Questionnaire (F = 6.55, P = .01). There were no differences between groups in either rotation-related-sport participation or movement-pattern variables demonstrated during 2 lower-limb-movement tests (P > .05 for all comparisons).

Conclusions:

People with and people without LBP who regularly play a rotation-related sport differed in the amount and nature of activity participation but not in movement-pattern variables. An imbalance between level of activity during sport and daily functions may contribute to the development or persistence of LBP in people who play a rotation-related sport.

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Maureen R. Weiss, Lindsay E. Kipp, Alison Phillips Reichter and Nicole D. Bolter

Purpose: Girls on the Run (GOTR), a physical activity-based positive youth development program, uses running as a platform to teach life skills and promote healthy behaviors. In this companion paper of our comprehensive project, the authors evaluated program impact on positive youth development by comparing GOTR participants to youth in other organized activities (Sport and physical education [PE]) on life skills transfer and social processes. Qualitative methods complemented quantitative data through interviews with GOTR stakeholders. Method: The participants included 215 girls in GOTR and 692 girls in the same grades and schools who did not participate in GOTR (Sport = 485; PE = 207). They completed self-report measures of life skills transfer, peer and coach relatedness, and coach autonomy support at the season’s end. GOTR subsamples of girls, coaches, caregivers, and school personnel participated in focus groups. Results: Girls in GOTR compared favorably to the Sport and PE girls on all life skills—managing emotions, resolving conflicts, helping others, and making intentional decisions—and to the PE girls for all 3 social processes. The GOTR and Sport girls did not differ on coach relatedness and autonomy support, but the Sport girls rated teammate relatedness higher. The GOTR girls’ scores on life skills transfer remained stable at a 3-month follow-up assessment. Stakeholders in the focus groups shared corroborating evidence that, through participating in GOTR, girls learn skills that generalize to school and home contexts. Conclusion: Using comparison groups, a retention assessment, and mixed methods, the findings provide evidence that GOTR is effective in teaching skills and strategies that generalize to broader life domains. The processes that explain group differences on life skills transfer include GOTR’s intentional curriculum of skill-building activities delivered by coaches within a caring and autonomy-supportive climate.

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Tracy Hoos, Nancy Espinoza, Simon Marshall and Elva M. Arredondo

Background:

Valid and reliable self-report measures of physical activity (PA) are needed to evaluate the impact of interventions aimed at increasing the levels of PA. However, few valid measures for assessing PA in Latino populations exist.

Objective:

The purpose of this study is to determine whether the GPAQ is a valid measure of PA among Latinas and to examine its sensitivity to intervention change. Intervention attendance was also examined.

Methods:

Baseline and postintervention data were collected from 72 Latinas (mean age = 43.01; SD = 9.05) who participated in Caminando con Fe/Walking with Faith, a multilevel intervention promoting PA among church-going Latinas. Participants completed the GPAQ and were asked to wear the accelerometer for 7 consecutive days at baseline and again 6 months later. Accelerometer data were aggregated into 5 levels of activity intensity (sedentary, light, moderate, moderate-vigorous, and vigorous) and correlated to self-reported mean minutes of PA across several domains (leisure time, work, commute and household chores).

Results:

There were significant correlations at postintervention between self-reported minutes per week of vigorous LTPA and accelerometer measured vigorous PA (r = .404, P < .001) as well as significant correlations of sensitivity to intervention change (post intervention minus baseline) between self-reported vigorous LTPA and accelerometer-measured vigorous PA (r = .383, P < .003) and self-reported total vigorous PA and accelerometer measured vigorous PA (r = .363, P < .003).

Conclusions:

The findings from this study suggest that the GPAQ may be useful for evaluating the effectiveness of programs aimed at increasing vigorous levels of PA among Latinas.

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of Validity Evidence Needed With Self-Report Measures of Physical Activity Louise C. Mâsse * Judith E. de Niet * 1 2012 9 9 s1 s1 S44 S44 S55 S55 10.1123/jpah.9.s1.s44 Modeling Errors in Physical Activity Recall Data Sarah M. Nusser * Nicholas K. Beyler * Gregory J. Welk * Alicia L