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Monika Uys, Susan Bassett, Catherine E. Draper, Lisa Micklesfield, Andries Monyeki, Anniza de Villiers, Estelle V. Lambert and the HAKSA 2016 Writing Group


We present results of the 2016 Healthy Active Kids South Africa (HAKSA) Report Card on the current status of physical activity (PA) and nutrition in South African youth. The context in which we interpret the findings is that participation in PA is a fundamental human right, along with the right to “attainment of the highest standard of health.”


The HAKSA 2016 Writing Group was comprised of 33 authorities in physical education, exercise science, nutrition, public health, and journalism. The search strategy was based on peer-reviewed manuscripts, dissertations, and ‘gray’ literature. The core PA indicators are Overall Physical Activity Level; Organized Sport Participation; Active and Outdoor Play; Active Transportation; Sedentary Behaviors; Family and Peer Influences; School; Community and the Built Environment; and National Government Policy, Strategies, and Investment. In addition, we reported on Physical Fitness and Motor Proficiency separately. We also reported on nutrition indicators including Overweight and Under-nutrition along with certain key behaviors such as Fruit and Vegetable Intake, and policies and programs including School Nutrition Programs and Tuck Shops. Data were extracted and grades assigned after consensus was reached. Grades were assigned to each indicator ranging from an A, succeeding with a large majority of children and youth (81% to 100%); B, succeeding with well over half of children and youth (61% to 80%); C, succeeding with about half of children and youth (41% to 60%); D, succeeding with less than half but some children and youth (21% to 40%); and F, succeeding with very few children and youth (0% to 20%); INC is inconclusive.


Overall PA levels received a C grade, as we are succeeding with more than 50% of children meeting recommendations. Organized Sports Participation also received a C, and Government Policies remain promising, receiving a B. Screen time and sedentary behavior were a major concern. Under- and over-weight were highlighted and, as overweight is on the rise, received a D grade.


In particular, issues of food security, obesogenic environments, and access to activity-supportive environments should guide social mobilization downstream and policy upstream. There is an urgent need for practice-based evidence based on evaluation of existing, scaled up interventions.

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Jen D. Wong, Julie S. Son, Stephanie T. West, Jill J. Naar and Toni Liechty

’s participation in competitive softball in late adulthood. By better identifying the challenges and opportunities that older women face in competitive team sports participation, we have the opportunity to better determine the needs of female athletes aging in place at the local community level. According to Baker

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Sarah A. Amin, Paula J. Duquesnay, Catherine M. Wright, Kenneth Chui, Christina D. Economos and Jennifer M. Sacheck

sports/organized activities to a mere 27% ( 36 ). Studies suggest that the benefits of sports participation transcend physical benefits and correspond with social and psychological benefits, including important self-perceptions, such as PAC ( 9 ). These effects may be even more critical for underserved

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Jonathan Miller, Mark Pereira, Julian Wolfson, Melissa Laska, Toben Nelson and Dianne Neumark-Sztainer

associated with physical activity, 23 screen time has been negatively associated with physical activity, 6 , 7 sports participation has been positively associated with physical activity, 24 substance use has been negatively associated with physical activity, 12 , 23 depression has been negatively

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Shara Crookston

’ lack of participation in physical activity that range from concerns about appearance during an activity to a lack of self-esteem that inhibits sports participation ( Belcher et al., 2010 ; Dinkel et al., 2017 ; Troiano et al., 2008 ). Additionally, structural inequality limits access to activities

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Rachel Allison

released reports concluded that sports participation had prepared these women for their occupational positions. Nearly all (94%) had played sport; just over half of those holding top-ranked positions had played in college. Three-fourths of women surveyed said that sport can “help to accelerate a woman

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Brian A. Eiler, Rosemary Al-Kire, Patrick C. Doyle and Heidi A. Wayment

and trust than in other contexts. The athletic context may also confer some benefit to athletes in their ability to engage in resilient coping to these types of traumatic experiences. Here, we posit that sports participation may increase the likelihood that disclosures of sexual abuse experiences will

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B. David Ridpath

about elite development for the gifted and distorted the original role of mass participation and the intended sound mind and body for all through sportsparticipation. In Chapter 1 of Sports Crazy , as cited by Overman, Dr. John Gerdy, a former college All-American and professional basketball player

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Karla I. Galaviz, Gabriela Argumedo Garcia, Alejandro Gaytán-González, Inés González-Casanova, Martín Francisco González Villalobos, Alejandra Jáuregui, Edtna Jáuregui Ulloa, Catalina Medina, Yoali Selene Pacheco Miranda, Marcela Pérez Rodríguez, Eugen Resendiz, Ricardo Alejandro Retano Pelayo, María del Pilar Rodríguez Martínez and Juan Ricardo López y Taylor

$202 million Mexican pesos in 2014). 5 Figure 1 —Mexico’s 2018 Report Card cover. Only 7 out of 10 indicators were graded. Grades indicate that Mexican children and youth are not meeting the recommendations for physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Sports participation and active transportation

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Ricardo Ribeiro Agostinete, Santiago Maillane-Vanegas, Kyle R. Lynch, Bruna Turi-Lynch, Manuel J. Coelho-e-Silva, Eduardo Zapaterra Campos, Suziane Ungari Cayres and Romulo Araújo Fernandes

Sports participation has been considered as an important manifestation of physical activity in adolescence, and consequently, it can be regarded as an effective strategy to reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases throughout life, which include osteoporosis ( 27 , 34 ). Being physically