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Morgan N. Clennin and Russell R. Pate

. Exercise and fitness in childhood: implications for a lifetime of health . Perspect Exerc Sci Sports Med . 1989 ; 2 : 401 – 430 . 36. Sirard JR , Pfeiffer KA , Dowda M , Pate RR . Race differences in activity, fitness, and BMI in female eighth graders categorized by sports participation

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Ammar Nebigh, Mohamed Elfethi Abed, Rihab Borji, Sonia Sahli, Slaheddine Sellami, Zouhair Tabka and Haithem Rebai

(LM) in both adults and children ( 27 , 39 ), especially when sports participation is initiated before pubertal onset ( 5 , 40 ). In this context, it has been reported that prepubertal volleyball and basketball players demonstrated higher bone mass and LM than sedentary boys ( 5 , 40 ). Similar

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Gregory W. Heath and John Bilderback

neighborhood schools within both south and east Chattanooga are summarized in Table  1 . Physical activity observations among these children, youth, and adults consisted of documentation of sedentary, walking, and vigorous activity/sports participation. The combined observations in south and east Chattanooga

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William Bellew, Ben J. Smith, Tracy Nau, Karen Lee, Lindsey Reece and Adrian Bauman

-018-0676-2 9. Blok DJ , van Lenthe FJ , de Vlas SJ . The impact of individual and environmental interventions on income inequalities in sports participation: explorations with an agent-based model . Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act . 2018 ; 15 ( 1 ): 107 . PubMed ID: 30382862 doi:10.1186/s12966-018-0740-y

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Hawkar S. Ahmed, Samuele M. Marcora, David Dixon and Glen Davison

, Llorens F , Sanabria D . The relationship between regular sports participation and vigilance in male and female adolescents . PLoS One . 2015 ; 10 ( 4 ): e0123898 . doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0123898 25849873 17. Terry PC , Lane AM , Fogarty GJ . Construct validity of the profile of mood

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Marta C. Erlandson, Shonah B. Runalls, Stefan A. Jackowski, Robert A. Faulkner and Adam D.G. Baxter-Jones

hip fracture risk. Future research is needed to examine the long-term impact of childhood sports participation as women reach menopause and bone loss accelerates. Further, as previously mentioned, research should examine if there is a threshold of impact loading required for these long-term geometry

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Regina Belski, Alex Donaldson, Kiera Staley, Anne Skiadopoulos, Erica Randle, Paul O’Halloran, Pam Kappelides, Steve Teakel, Sonya Stanley and Matthew Nicholson

:// Australian Football League . ( 2017 ). This is our game . Retrieved from Bandura , A. ( 1977 ). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change . Psychological Review, 84 ( 2

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André O. Werneck, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Rômulo A. Fernandes, Marcelo Romanzini, Enio R.V. Ronque, Edilson S. Cyrino, Luís B. Sardinha and Danilo R. Silva

from a nationally representative cross-sectional study . Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act . 2017 ; 14 ( 1 ): 72 . PubMed doi:10.1186/s12966-017-0529-4 28558779 10.1186/s12966-017-0529-4 16. Wijtzes AI , Jansen W , Bouthoorn SH , et al . Social inequalities in young children’s sports participation

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Vinícius Y.B. Suetake, Emerson Franchini, Bruna T.C. Saraiva, Anne K.F. da Silva, Aline F.B. Bernardo, Rayane L. Gomes, Luiz Carlos M. Vanderlei and Diego G.D. Christofaro

between sports participation and parasympathetic modulation was identified, even after adjustments for gender, ethnicity, age, and body fat ( 9 ). In particular, after 12 weeks of soccer training in obese adolescents, researchers found a significant reduction in sympathetic modulation and an increase in

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Kent Upham, Brandon J. Auer, Christopher N. Sciamanna, Andrew J. Mowen, Joshua M. Smyth, David E. Conroy, Matthew Silvis, Jennifer L. Kraschnewski, Liza S. Rovniak, Erik Lehman, Kalen Kearcher, Maggie Vizzini and Louis Cesarone

et al, 42 who observed similar levels of perceived enjoyment among obese and nonobese participants in a high-intensity interval training program. Based on national survey data, women have a lower rate of sports participation as adults (16.0% vs 35.0% for men). 15 The goal of PlayFit was to create