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Tzu-Chieh Liao, Joyce H. Keyak and Christopher M. Powers

corresponding to the individual subject’s maximum knee flexion angle during the stance phase of running (average: 40.7° [4.7]°) in a supine position. Quadriceps muscle morphology was assessed from axial plane MR images of the thigh using a 3-D spoiled gradient-recalled echo protocol (repetition time: 10.1 ms

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Adam M. Fullenkamp, Danilo V. Tolusso, C. Matthew Laurent, Brian M. Campbell and Andrea E. Cripps

), there were a number of significant findings with regard to angular kinematics in the sagittal plane (no differences were observed for Ab/Ab or I/E motions). Figure  1 depicts significant increases in hip-flexion angle during NMT walking compared to OG for a period in late stance, as well as a period

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Nicole J. Chimera and Mallorie Larson

The lower quarter Y-Balance Test (YBT-LQ) is a clinical movement screening test aimed at assessing dynamic balance. The YBT-LQ utilizes unilateral stance while reaching in 3 reach directions: anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral to assess both a composite reach score and asymmetry assessment

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Nathan Waite, John Goetschius and Jakob D. Lauver

the first 4 stance phases with the dominant foot in the middle 10 m of each trial. The peak TA during each stance phase was recorded, resulting in 8 peak TA values per grade and surface combination, which were then averaged to determine the average peak TA. Statistical Analysis A 2-way (3 × 3

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Alberto Pardo-Ibáñez, Jose L. Bermejo, Sergio Gandia, Julien Maitre, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Isaac Estevan and Xavier Garcia-Masso

adolescence (i.e., between 13 and 17 years old) through the analysis of COP signals. First of all, our results found different postural control between subjects of 13–14 years old and older adolescents. Furthermore, a critical change was found in sensory reweighting during the bipedal stance with manipulation

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Simon A. Feros, Warren B. Young and Brendan J. O’Brien

respect to the stance of a live batter and the bounce of the new ball. The batter “took guard” on the line of middle stump and stood with feet parallel and either side of the popping crease. A live batter was included for 2 primary reasons: to provide specific cues for the bouncer (short-pitched delivery

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Daniel G. Miner, Brent A. Harper and Stephen M. Glass

-Stable model. The patterns of reliability for specific summary metrics varied across the stance conditions. The Sway Index and ES reliability coefficients were within ±0.05 units of each other for all stance conditions. The reliability of COG A95 was greater than that of the Sway Index and ES in the EO

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Katherine L. Helly, Katherine A. Bain, Phillip A. Gribble and Matthew C. Hoch

with CAI. This will better assist health care professionals in applying evidence-based treatment strategies to address residual static balance impairments following an ankle sprain. Focused Clinical Question Does plantar massage improve static postural control during single-limb stance in patients with

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Lachlan E. Garrick, Bryce C. Alexander, Anthony G. Schache, Marcus G. Pandy, Kay M. Crossley and Natalie J. Collins

force vector is medial to the knee joint center throughout stance, hence an external knee adduction moment (KAM) is generated. However, with excessive dynamic knee valgus, the ground reaction force vector may (in extreme cases) shift lateral to the knee joint center in the frontal plane, thereby

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Mason D. Smith and David R. Bell


Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is the standard of care for individuals with ACL rupture. Balance deficits have been observed in patients with ACL reconstruction (ACLR) using advanced posturography, which is the current gold standard. It is unclear if postural-control deficits exist when assessed by the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS), which is a clinical assessment of balance.


The purpose of this study is to determine if postural-control deficits are present in individuals with ACLR as measured by the BESS.


Thirty participants were included in this study. Fifteen had a history of unilateral ACLR and were compared with 15 matched controls.


The BESS consists of 3 stances (double-limb, single-limb, and tandem) on 2 surfaces (firm and foam). Participants begin in each stance with hands on their hips and eyes closed while trying to stand as still as possible for 20 s.

Main Outcome Measures:

Each participant performed 3 trials of each stance (18 total), and errors were assessed during each trial and summed to create a total score.


We observed a significant group × stance interaction (P = .004) and a significant main effect for stance (P < .001). Post hoc analysis revealed that the ACLR group had worse balance on the single-leg foam stance than did controls. Finally, the reconstructed group had more errors when total BESS score was examined (P = .02).


Balance deficits exist in individuals with ACLR as measured by the BESS. Total BESS score was different between groups. The only condition that differed between groups was the single-leg stance on the unstable foam surface.