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Kieran J. Marston, Belinda M. Brown, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Sabine Bird, Linda K. Wijaya, Shaun Y. M. Teo, Ralph N. Martins and Jeremiah J. Peiffer

rating of perceived exertion. Maximal strength testing Maximal strength was determined for four exercises in the following testing sequence: (a) bench press, (b) leg press, (c) lat pull-down, and (d) leg curl. Immediately prior to RM testing, blood pressure was deemed appropriate to proceed for exercise

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Justin L. Rush, Lindsey K. Lepley, Steven Davi and Adam S. Lepley

assessment. Quadriceps Strength Testing and Volitional Activation Isometric strength was assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer by collecting the participant’s maximal voluntary force of the quadriceps muscles. Participants were instructed to sit on the dynamometer and were positioned in 90° of trunk

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Ryan G. Timmins, Baubak Shamim, Paul J. Tofari, Jack T. Hickey and Donny M. Camera

power (MAP) 20 from the pretraining and week 6 tests were used to determine training loads for the endurance program for the END and CONC groups. Strength Testing Maximal Strength Assessment Maximal strength was assessed by determining each participants 1RM plate-loaded 45° incline leg press, seated

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Samuele Contemori, Andrea Biscarini, Fabio M. Botti, Daniele Busti, Roberto Panichi and Vito E. Pettorossi

position, shoulder adducted, elbow flexed at 90°, and forearm in a midway position between pronation and supination (subjects were instructed to punt the thumb upward). Each strength test was performed as a “make test” against the resistance of the “Kern HCB 200K100” dynamometer (Kern e Sohn GmbH, Ziegelei

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Caroline Lisee, Lindsay Slater, Jay Hertel and Joe M. Hart

self-selected pace and were asked with which leg they would kick a ball farther to determine the dominant (DOM) leg. Participants were seated in the Biodex System III multimode dynamometer (Biodex Medical System, Inc, Shirley, NY) for isokinetic knee-extensor and knee-flexor strength testing

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Daniel Gilfeather, Grant Norte, Christopher D. Ingersoll and Neal R. Glaviano

the muscle, with one electrode just inferior to the iliac crest and the other electrode just superior to the greater trochanter. Participants completed hip abduction strength testing in a standing position in a Biodex System 4 Pro dynamometer (Biodex Medical Systems, Inc, Shirley, NY), with the axis

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Neal R. Glaviano and Susan Saliba

. Pain during testing was collected to ensure similarities between participants as pain has been previously identified to alter strength testing. The distance between the patient’s line and the far left line (no pain) was measured in centimeters to the closest 10th of a centimeter. The VAS is a popular

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Dai Sugimoto, Benton E. Heyworth, Brandon A. Yates, Dennis E. Kramer, Mininder S. Kocher and Lyle J. Micheli

joint was then passively moved from extension and flexion (Figure  2B ). 15 , 39 , 40 Figure 2 —Images of knee extension (A) and flexion (B) range of motion measurements. Muscle Strength Test Quadriceps strength was assessed while patients were seated on the edge of treatment table with 90° of knee

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Curtis Kindel and John Challis

). On the day of strength testing all subjects had their hip, knee, and ankle joint ranges of motion measured by a licensed physical therapist, and then warmed-up on a recumbent stationary bike at a self-selected speed for 5 minutes. Strength curves were assessed for hip extension using a Biodex

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Stephen M. Cornish, Jeremie E. Chase, Eric M. Bugera and Gordon G. Giesbrecht

) percentage of body fat by bioelectrical impedance, (e) waist circumference, and (f) standard 1RM strength testing on each of the six muscle group apparatuses for determining the experimental resistance levels. These measures were taken on each participant to indicate that they were typically healthy older adult