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Justin L. Rush, Lindsey K. Lepley, Steven Davi and Adam S. Lepley

assessment. Quadriceps Strength Testing and Volitional Activation Isometric strength was assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer by collecting the participant’s maximal voluntary force of the quadriceps muscles. Participants were instructed to sit on the dynamometer and were positioned in 90° of trunk

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Curtis Kindel and John Challis

). On the day of strength testing all subjects had their hip, knee, and ankle joint ranges of motion measured by a licensed physical therapist, and then warmed-up on a recumbent stationary bike at a self-selected speed for 5 minutes. Strength curves were assessed for hip extension using a Biodex

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Stephen M. Cornish, Jeremie E. Chase, Eric M. Bugera and Gordon G. Giesbrecht

) percentage of body fat by bioelectrical impedance, (e) waist circumference, and (f) standard 1RM strength testing on each of the six muscle group apparatuses for determining the experimental resistance levels. These measures were taken on each participant to indicate that they were typically healthy older adult

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Daniel Gilfeather, Grant Norte, Christopher D. Ingersoll and Neal R. Glaviano

the muscle, with one electrode just inferior to the iliac crest and the other electrode just superior to the greater trochanter. Participants completed hip abduction strength testing in a standing position in a Biodex System 4 Pro dynamometer (Biodex Medical Systems, Inc, Shirley, NY), with the axis

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Kieran J. Marston, Belinda M. Brown, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Sabine Bird, Linda K. Wijaya, Shaun Y. M. Teo, Ralph N. Martins and Jeremiah J. Peiffer

rating of perceived exertion. Maximal strength testing Maximal strength was determined for four exercises in the following testing sequence: (a) bench press, (b) leg press, (c) lat pull-down, and (d) leg curl. Immediately prior to RM testing, blood pressure was deemed appropriate to proceed for exercise

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Samuele Contemori, Andrea Biscarini, Fabio M. Botti, Daniele Busti, Roberto Panichi and Vito E. Pettorossi

position, shoulder adducted, elbow flexed at 90°, and forearm in a midway position between pronation and supination (subjects were instructed to punt the thumb upward). Each strength test was performed as a “make test” against the resistance of the “Kern HCB 200K100” dynamometer (Kern e Sohn GmbH, Ziegelei

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Leila Selimbegović, Olivier Dupuy, Julie Terache, Yannick Blandin, Laurent Bosquet and Armand Chatard

to rather than concomitantly with effort expenditure. However, that study explicitly associated the color red with the effort expenditure task (i.e., a red rectangle featured the “strength test” title). By contrast, in the present study, the domain in which evaluative threat was experienced was

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Gavriil G. Arsoniadis, Gregory C. Bogdanis, Gerasimos Terzis and Argyris G. Toubekis

). In the last preliminary session, 3 days following maximum strength testing, all swimmers performed 5 repetitions of 200 m (5 ×200 m) at intensities corresponding to 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100% of the 200-m maximum speed, each repetition starting every 5 minutes and 30 seconds with a push off start

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Vandre C. Figueiredo, Michelle M. Farnfield, Megan L.R. Ross, Petra Gran, Shona L. Halson, Jonathan M. Peake, David Cameron-Smith and James F. Markworth

procedures. All procedures were approved by the human research ethic committees of RMIT University and the Australian Institute of Sport and conformed to the Declaration of Helsinki. Preliminary Testing Leg strength testing and familiarization One week prior to commencing the study, all subjects reported to

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Ryan G. Timmins, Baubak Shamim, Paul J. Tofari, Jack T. Hickey and Donny M. Camera

power (MAP) 20 from the pretraining and week 6 tests were used to determine training loads for the endurance program for the END and CONC groups. Strength Testing Maximal Strength Assessment Maximal strength was assessed by determining each participants 1RM plate-loaded 45° incline leg press, seated