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Daniel Gilfeather, Grant Norte, Christopher D. Ingersoll and Neal R. Glaviano

the muscle, with one electrode just inferior to the iliac crest and the other electrode just superior to the greater trochanter. Participants completed hip abduction strength testing in a standing position in a Biodex System 4 Pro dynamometer (Biodex Medical Systems, Inc, Shirley, NY), with the axis

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Gavriil G. Arsoniadis, Gregory C. Bogdanis, Gerasimos Terzis and Argyris G. Toubekis

). In the last preliminary session, 3 days following maximum strength testing, all swimmers performed 5 repetitions of 200 m (5 ×200 m) at intensities corresponding to 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100% of the 200-m maximum speed, each repetition starting every 5 minutes and 30 seconds with a push off start

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José Messias Rodrigues da Silva, Marcia Uchoa de Rezende, Tânia Carvalho Spada, Lucila da Silva Francisco, Helenilson Pereira dos Santos, Robson de Andrade Souza, Júlia Maria D'Andréa Greve and Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac

isokinetic strength-testing protocol of the knee and ankle in older adults . Gerontology . 2009 ; 55 ( 3 ): 259 – 268 . 10.1159/000172832 18997454 27. Symons TB , Vandervoort AA , Rice CL , Overend TJ , Marsh GD . Reliability of isokinetic and isometric knee-extensor force in older women

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Samuele Contemori, Andrea Biscarini, Fabio M. Botti, Daniele Busti, Roberto Panichi and Vito E. Pettorossi

position, shoulder adducted, elbow flexed at 90°, and forearm in a midway position between pronation and supination (subjects were instructed to punt the thumb upward). Each strength test was performed as a “make test” against the resistance of the “Kern HCB 200K100” dynamometer (Kern e Sohn GmbH, Ziegelei

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Vandre C. Figueiredo, Michelle M. Farnfield, Megan L.R. Ross, Petra Gran, Shona L. Halson, Jonathan M. Peake, David Cameron-Smith and James F. Markworth

procedures. All procedures were approved by the human research ethic committees of RMIT University and the Australian Institute of Sport and conformed to the Declaration of Helsinki. Preliminary Testing Leg strength testing and familiarization One week prior to commencing the study, all subjects reported to

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Neal R. Glaviano and Susan Saliba

. Pain during testing was collected to ensure similarities between participants as pain has been previously identified to alter strength testing. The distance between the patient’s line and the far left line (no pain) was measured in centimeters to the closest 10th of a centimeter. The VAS is a popular

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Justin L. Rush, Lindsey K. Lepley, Steven Davi and Adam S. Lepley

assessment. Quadriceps Strength Testing and Volitional Activation Isometric strength was assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer by collecting the participant’s maximal voluntary force of the quadriceps muscles. Participants were instructed to sit on the dynamometer and were positioned in 90° of trunk

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Dai Sugimoto, Benton E. Heyworth, Brandon A. Yates, Dennis E. Kramer, Mininder S. Kocher and Lyle J. Micheli

joint was then passively moved from extension and flexion (Figure  2B ). 15 , 39 , 40 Figure 2 —Images of knee extension (A) and flexion (B) range of motion measurements. Muscle Strength Test Quadriceps strength was assessed while patients were seated on the edge of treatment table with 90° of knee

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Stephen M. Cornish, Jeremie E. Chase, Eric M. Bugera and Gordon G. Giesbrecht

) percentage of body fat by bioelectrical impedance, (e) waist circumference, and (f) standard 1RM strength testing on each of the six muscle group apparatuses for determining the experimental resistance levels. These measures were taken on each participant to indicate that they were typically healthy older adult

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Ryan G. Timmins, Baubak Shamim, Paul J. Tofari, Jack T. Hickey and Donny M. Camera

power (MAP) 20 from the pretraining and week 6 tests were used to determine training loads for the endurance program for the END and CONC groups. Strength Testing Maximal Strength Assessment Maximal strength was assessed by determining each participants 1RM plate-loaded 45° incline leg press, seated