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Colleen McConnell, Alyssa McPherson and Kathleen Woolf

-heat environments, put marching artists at risk for injury ( Dick et al., 2013 ; Vepraskas, 2002 ). Considerable research has examined the prevalence of and risk factors for injuries sustained by marching artists ( Beckett et al., 2015 ; Bischof, 1994 ; Harman, 1993 ; Kilanowski, 2008 , Knapik et al., 2007

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Andrea Nicolò, Marco Montini, Michele Girardi, Francesco Felici, Ilenia Bazzucchi and Massimo Sacchetti

: 25342703 doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00898.2013 10.1152/japplphysiol.00898.2013 31. Liu JZ , Shan ZY , Zhang LD , Sahgal V , Brown RW , Yue GH . Human brain activation during sustained and intermittent submaximal fatigue muscle contractions: an fMRI study . J Neurophysiol . 2003 ; 90 ( 1

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Joel Garrett, Stuart R. Graham, Roger G. Eston, Darren J. Burgess, Lachlan J. Garrett, John Jakeman and Kevin Norton

sustainment of performance output, while also minimizing excessive muscle damage. Along with NMF having an effect on the ability to sprint, decreases were observed within the mediolateral vector (PL1D side ) and anteroposterior vector (PL1D fwd ). This may mean that either directly, or due to modifications in

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Darren Steeves, Leo J. Thornley, Joshua A. Goreham, Matthew J. Jordan, Scott C. Landry and Jonathon R. Fowles

Flat-water sprint kayaking over 200 m is a timed cyclical event with large upper-body physical demands. 1 – 5 Paddlers must generate high levels of sustained muscle power during each stroke from the catch phase to the exit phase to maximize boat acceleration and minimize deceleration. 2 , 6 A

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Susan Vrijkotte, Romain Meeusen, Cloe Vandervaeren, Luk Buyse, Jeroen van Cutsem, Nathalie Pattyn and Bart Roelands

psychobiological state characterized by an acute increase of subjective perceptions of effort and fatigue provoked by prolonged and demanding cognitive activity. 6 It involves processes such as vigilance and sustained attention and can be induced by cognitively demanding computer games or prolonged cognitive

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Ulrika Andersson-Hall, Stefan Pettersson, Fredrik Edin, Anders Pedersen, Daniel Malmodin and Klavs Madsen

allowed sustained high fat oxidation during subsequent exercise despite increased insulin concentration and attenuated ketosis during the inter-exercise period. 40 g of maltodextrin intake only partly affected the enhanced exercise induced fat oxidation. Whether intake of protein or carbohydrate in the

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Bent R. Rønnestad, Tue Rømer and Joar Hansen

maximal aerobic speed (MAS) is recommended. 8 However, continuous work at MAS can only be sustained for ∼6 minutes in well-trained runners and cyclists. 9 , 10 Therefore, there is a quest for developing HIT sessions that optimize time ≥90% VO 2 max by balancing work and recovery durations and

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David M. Shaw, Fabrice Merien, Andrea Braakhuis, Daniel Plews, Paul Laursen and Deborah K. Dulson

, 2015 ), with the contribution of fat-derived fuel largely influenced by exercise intensity, training status, and diet ( Maunder et al., 2018 ). These events require acute dietary interventions to sustain endogenous fuel supply, with the most common and effective approaches including carbohydrate

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Eva Piatrikova, Ana C. Sousa, Javier T. Gonzalez and Sean Williams

The critical speed (CS) model describes the capacity of an individual to sustain particular work rates as a function of time, via the demarcation of 2 physiological parameters; CS and the curvature constant ( D ′). 1 – 5 The CS represents the highest speed that can be sustained for an extended

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Kyle M.A. Thompson, Alanna K. Whinton, Shane Ferth, Lawrence L. Spriet and Jamie F. Burr

.1161/01.CIR.74.5.1124 3769170 10.1161/01.CIR.74.5.1124 2. Barcroft H , Millen JLE . The blood flow through muscle during sustained contraction . J Physiol . 1939 ; 97 : 17 – 31 . PubMed ID: 16995147 doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1939.sp003789 10.1113/jphysiol.1939.sp003789 16995147 3. Andreas M , Schmid