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Ulrika Andersson-Hall, Stefan Pettersson, Fredrik Edin, Anders Pedersen, Daniel Malmodin and Klavs Madsen

allowed sustained high fat oxidation during subsequent exercise despite increased insulin concentration and attenuated ketosis during the inter-exercise period. 40 g of maltodextrin intake only partly affected the enhanced exercise induced fat oxidation. Whether intake of protein or carbohydrate in the

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Bent R. Rønnestad, Tue Rømer and Joar Hansen

maximal aerobic speed (MAS) is recommended. 8 However, continuous work at MAS can only be sustained for ∼6 minutes in well-trained runners and cyclists. 9 , 10 Therefore, there is a quest for developing HIT sessions that optimize time ≥90% VO 2 max by balancing work and recovery durations and

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Alison Keogh, Barry Smyth, Brian Caulfield, Aonghus Lawlor, Jakim Berndsen and Cailbhe Doherty

cost of running 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Lactate concentration at turnpoint 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Maximal sustainable fraction of VO 2 max 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Velocity where lactate goes above baseline 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Ventilatory threshold 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) VO 2 max at lactate threshold 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Annual training

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Colleen McConnell, Alyssa McPherson and Kathleen Woolf

-heat environments, put marching artists at risk for injury ( Dick et al., 2013 ; Vepraskas, 2002 ). Considerable research has examined the prevalence of and risk factors for injuries sustained by marching artists ( Beckett et al., 2015 ; Bischof, 1994 ; Harman, 1993 ; Kilanowski, 2008 , Knapik et al., 2007

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Pitre C. Bourdon, Sarah M. Woolford and Jonathan D. Buckley

. Numerous studies have suggested that there are at least 2 apparent discontinuities or thresholds in the blood lactate response to incremental exercise. 1 – 3 The first of these is associated with the initial intensity at which there is a sustained increase in blood lactate concentration ([BLa − ]) above

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Andrea Nicolò, Marco Montini, Michele Girardi, Francesco Felici, Ilenia Bazzucchi and Massimo Sacchetti

: 25342703 doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00898.2013 10.1152/japplphysiol.00898.2013 31. Liu JZ , Shan ZY , Zhang LD , Sahgal V , Brown RW , Yue GH . Human brain activation during sustained and intermittent submaximal fatigue muscle contractions: an fMRI study . J Neurophysiol . 2003 ; 90 ( 1

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Robert H. Mann, Craig A. Williams, Bryan C. Clift and Alan R. Barker

calibrated automatic analyzer (YSI 2300; Yellow Springs Instruments, Yellow Springs, OH) in duplicate and averaged for subsequent analysis. LT and LTP were visually obtained by plotting blood lactate against running velocity and were approved by 2 independent reviewers. LT was accepted as the first sustained

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Simon A. Rogers, Chris S. Whatman, Simon N. Pearson and Andrew E. Kilding

Successful middle-distance (MD) running in distances from 800 m to 5000 m requires both rapid and economical movements. Athletes must sustain high running velocities at and above maximal aerobic speeds, 1 with sprint performance in the final lap of 1500-m races often determining medalists on the

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Alan Chorley, Richard P. Bott, Simon Marwood and Kevin L. Lamb

is derived predominantly from sustainable aerobic pathways, 4 , 5 while work above CP requires a greater anaerobic contribution, drawing on a finite capacity of work known as W ′. The precise physiological underpinnings of W ′ remain elusive; initially thought to be a finite amount of energy drawn

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Mehdi Kordi, Campbell Menzies and Andy Galbraith

the highest sustainable running speed that can be maintained without a continual rise in VO 2 . 6 It has been reported to demarcate the boundary between the heavy and severe exercise intensity domains and is correlated with maximum lactate steady state and VO 2 max. 3 , 4 , 7 D ′ has been described