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David Giles, Joel B. Chidley, Nicola Taylor, Ollie Torr, Josh Hadley, Tom Randall and Simon Fryer

can be sustained decreases as a hyperbolic function of increasing power, speed, tension, or force (eg, power illustrated in Figure  1 ). 6 Consequently, performance and the point of exhaustion are highly predictable. When work data are plotted against time, it may be observed that power output falls

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Scott Cocking, Mathew G. Wilson, David Nichols, N. Timothy Cable, Daniel J. Green, Dick H. J. Thijssen and Helen Jones

ischemic conditions, 2 it remains unknown whether previously observed local IPC-induced metabolic adaptations 9 , 30 may have contributed to these findings. Nevertheless, the current data are suggestive that traditional IPC, applied locally, enhances the ability to sustain the same workload for a

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Ulrika Andersson-Hall, Stefan Pettersson, Fredrik Edin, Anders Pedersen, Daniel Malmodin and Klavs Madsen

allowed sustained high fat oxidation during subsequent exercise despite increased insulin concentration and attenuated ketosis during the inter-exercise period. 40 g of maltodextrin intake only partly affected the enhanced exercise induced fat oxidation. Whether intake of protein or carbohydrate in the

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Simon A. Rogers, Chris S. Whatman, Simon N. Pearson and Andrew E. Kilding

Successful middle-distance (MD) running in distances from 800 m to 5000 m requires both rapid and economical movements. Athletes must sustain high running velocities at and above maximal aerobic speeds, 1 with sprint performance in the final lap of 1500-m races often determining medalists on the

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Bent R. Rønnestad, Tue Rømer and Joar Hansen

maximal aerobic speed (MAS) is recommended. 8 However, continuous work at MAS can only be sustained for ∼6 minutes in well-trained runners and cyclists. 9 , 10 Therefore, there is a quest for developing HIT sessions that optimize time ≥90% VO 2 max by balancing work and recovery durations and

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Ana B. Peinado, Nuria Romero-Parra, Miguel A. Rojo-Tirado, Rocío Cupeiro, Javier Butragueño, Eliane A. Castro, Francisco J. Calderón and Pedro J. Benito

influenced by several limitations such as aerodynamic drag, rolling resistance, cyclist mass, hill gradient, gear ratio, or total distance. 10 , 13 Power output and cadence during uphill segments of the Tour de France have been described. 14 During ascents, cyclists have to sustain a mean power output of

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Andrea Nicolò, Marco Montini, Michele Girardi, Francesco Felici, Ilenia Bazzucchi and Massimo Sacchetti

: 25342703 doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00898.2013 10.1152/japplphysiol.00898.2013 31. Liu JZ , Shan ZY , Zhang LD , Sahgal V , Brown RW , Yue GH . Human brain activation during sustained and intermittent submaximal fatigue muscle contractions: an fMRI study . J Neurophysiol . 2003 ; 90 ( 1

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Erin Calaine Inglis, Danilo Iannetta, Louis Passfield and Juan M. Murias

Identifying the critical intensity of exercise is a crucial aspect for predicting performance, prescribing exercise training, and evaluating the effectiveness of training interventions. 1 , 2 This critical intensity is thought to represent the upper boundary of sustainable performance (ie

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David M. Shaw, Fabrice Merien, Andrea Braakhuis, Daniel Plews, Paul Laursen and Deborah K. Dulson

, 2015 ), with the contribution of fat-derived fuel largely influenced by exercise intensity, training status, and diet ( Maunder et al., 2018 ). These events require acute dietary interventions to sustain endogenous fuel supply, with the most common and effective approaches including carbohydrate

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Kyle M.A. Thompson, Alanna K. Whinton, Shane Ferth, Lawrence L. Spriet and Jamie F. Burr

.1161/01.CIR.74.5.1124 3769170 10.1161/01.CIR.74.5.1124 2. Barcroft H , Millen JLE . The blood flow through muscle during sustained contraction . J Physiol . 1939 ; 97 : 17 – 31 . PubMed ID: 16995147 doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1939.sp003789 10.1113/jphysiol.1939.sp003789 16995147 3. Andreas M , Schmid