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Andrea Nicolò, Marco Montini, Michele Girardi, Francesco Felici, Ilenia Bazzucchi and Massimo Sacchetti

: 25342703 doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00898.2013 10.1152/japplphysiol.00898.2013 31. Liu JZ , Shan ZY , Zhang LD , Sahgal V , Brown RW , Yue GH . Human brain activation during sustained and intermittent submaximal fatigue muscle contractions: an fMRI study . J Neurophysiol . 2003 ; 90 ( 1

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Eva Piatrikova, Ana C. Sousa, Javier T. Gonzalez and Sean Williams

The critical speed (CS) model describes the capacity of an individual to sustain particular work rates as a function of time, via the demarcation of 2 physiological parameters; CS and the curvature constant ( D ′). 1 – 5 The CS represents the highest speed that can be sustained for an extended

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Erin Calaine Inglis, Danilo Iannetta, Louis Passfield and Juan M. Murias

Identifying the critical intensity of exercise is a crucial aspect for predicting performance, prescribing exercise training, and evaluating the effectiveness of training interventions. 1 , 2 This critical intensity is thought to represent the upper boundary of sustainable performance (ie

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Matthew Ellis, Mark Noon, Tony Myers and Neil Clarke

action of adenosine, which increases cell activity. 5 Direct antagonism of adenosine receptors may improve aerobic performance through enhanced excitation–contraction coupling through increased release of Ca 2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. 6 Similarly, it can reduce pain perception and sustain

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Alison Keogh, Barry Smyth, Brian Caulfield, Aonghus Lawlor, Jakim Berndsen and Cailbhe Doherty

cost of running 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Lactate concentration at turnpoint 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Maximal sustainable fraction of VO 2 max 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Velocity where lactate goes above baseline 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Ventilatory threshold 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) VO 2 max at lactate threshold 1 (2.8) 2 (1.8) Annual training

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Thomas Reeve, Ralph Gordon, Paul B. Laursen, Jason K.W. Lee and Christopher J. Tyler

the present study was only 38.3°C (0.4°C). Other high-intensity STHA studies reported similar thermal impulses and also failed to achieve a sustained elevation in body core temperature ≥38.5°C resulting in minimal physiological adaptations. 9 – 11 In combination, these data suggest that short

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Bent R. Rønnestad, Tue Rømer and Joar Hansen

maximal aerobic speed (MAS) is recommended. 8 However, continuous work at MAS can only be sustained for ∼6 minutes in well-trained runners and cyclists. 9 , 10 Therefore, there is a quest for developing HIT sessions that optimize time ≥90% VO 2 max by balancing work and recovery durations and

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Andrew J. Carnes and Sara E. Mahoney

monitored continuously (Polar FT4; Polar, Kempele, Finland), and rating of perceived exertion was assessed every 2 minutes using the Borg 6 to 20 scale. The highest mean VO 2 sustained for 30-second was reported as VO 2 max. VO 2 max was accepted with ≥2 of VO 2 plateau (ie, increase <1.0 mL·min −1 ·kg −1

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Bettina Karsten, Jonathan Baker, Fernando Naclerio, Andreas Klose, Antonino Bianco and Alfred Nimmerichter

Critical power (CP) is defined as the highest sustainable rate of aerobic metabolism without a continuous loss of homeostasis. 1 It separates power-output (PO) intensities, for which exercise tolerance is predictable (PO > CP), from those of longer sustainable durations (PO < CP). The second

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Olfa Turki, Wissem Dhahbi, Sabri Gueid, Sami Hmaied, Marouen Souaifi and Riadh Khalifa

implication for long-term training adaptations. 33 Interestingly, our findings indicate that for the loaded conditions, RCOD performance were faster at 15-second postwarm-up intervention, and this PAP effect was sustained up to 8-minute postwarm-up intervention. For the unloaded condition, such RCODs