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Pawel Zembura, Aleksandra Goldys and Hanna Nalecz

Background:

Poland’s 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth is the first assessment of child and youth physical activity (PA) in Poland using the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance grading system. The main goal was to summarize and describe the current state of child and youth PA to increase awareness and surveillance.

Methods:

The systematic methodology that underpins the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card was adapted and applied to the Polish report card. The best available data were consolidated, reviewed by a group of experts, and used to assign the letter grades to 9 core PA indicators on a scale ranging from A (highest) to F (lowest).

Results:

The 9 indicators were graded as such: 1) Overall Physical Activity (D), 2) Organized Sport Participation (C), 3) Active Play (INC), 4) Active Transportation (C), 5) Sedentary Behaviors (D), 6) Family and Peers (C), 7) School (B), 8) Community and the Built Environment (C), and 9) Government Strategies and Investments (C).

Conclusions:

The final grades show a strong role of school in providing PA for children and youth in Poland. However, promotion of school-based sport participation appears to be insufficient by itself to sustainably promote PA in this group.

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Anthony Barnett, Ester Cerin and Tom Baranowski

Background:

A population level increase in physical activity (PA) is critical to reduce obesity in youth. Video games are highly popular and active video games (AVGs) have the potential to play a role in promoting youth PA.

Method:

Studies on AVG play energy expenditure (EE) and maintenance of play in youth were systematically identified in the published literature and assessed for quality and informational value.

Results:

Nine studies measuring AVG play EE were identified. The meta-analytic estimates of average METs across these studies were 3.1 (95% CI: 2.6, 3.6) to 3.2 (95% CI: 2.7, 3.7). No games elicited an average EE above the 6 MET threshold for vigorous EE. Observed differences between studies were likely due to the different types of games used, rather than age or gender. Four studies related to maintenance of play were identified. Most studies reported AV G use declined over time. Studies were of low-to-medium quality.

Conclusion:

AVGs are capable of generating EE in youth to attain PA guidelines. Few studies have assessed sustainability of AV G play, which appears to diminish after a short period of time for most players. Better-quality future research must address how AV G play could be maintained over longer periods of time.

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Emily L. Mailey, Deirdre Dlugonski, Wei-Wen Hsu and Michelle Segar

Background: Many parents are insufficiently active. Further research is needed to understand the goals that drive sustained exercise participation among parents. The purpose of this study was to use self-determination theory derived constructs to examine the relationship between parents’ exercise goals and their autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and exercise behavior across 1 year. Methods: Mothers (n = 226) and fathers (n = 70) of children less than 16 years completed the Exercise Motivations Inventory-2 and, 1 year later, the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 and Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. Linear mixed effects models were used to examine the longitudinal relationships between exercise goals and autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and leisure-time exercise. Results: All goals except weight management were significantly associated with autonomous motivation, whereas only weight and appearance goals predicted controlled motivation. Exercising for stress management and revitalization, but not health- or appearance-related goals, was significantly related to exercise behavior over 1 year. Conclusions: Only goals related to immediate affective outcomes were associated with both autonomous motivation and exercise behavior over time. These findings support recent calls to “rebrand exercise” as a means to improve daily well-being. Such goals may drive parents to prioritize exercise because they value the immediate benefits it provides.

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Sarah M. Camhi, Susan B. Sisson, William D. Johnson, Peter T. Katzmarzyk and Catrine Tudor-Locke

Background:

Objective physical activity data analyses focus on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) without considering lower intensity lifestyle-type activities (LA). We describe 1) quantity of LA (minutes and steps per day) across demographic groups, 2) proportion of LA to total physical activity, and 3) relationships between LA and MVPA using NHANES 2005−2006 accelerometer adult data (n = 3744).

Methods:

LA was defined as 760 to 2019 counts per minute (cpm) and MVPA as ≥2020 cpm. LA was compared within gender, ethnicity, age, and BMI groups. Regression analyses examined independent effects. Correlations were evaluated between LA and MVPA. All analyses incorporated sampling weights to represent national estimates.

Results:

Adults spent 110.4 ± 1.6 minutes and took 3476 ± 54 steps per day in LA. Similar to MVPA, LA was highest in men, Mexican Americans, and lowest in adults ≥60 years or obese. When LA was held constant, ethnic differences no longer predicted MVPA minutes, and age no longer predicted MVPA steps. LA and MVPA minutes (r = .84) and steps per day (r = .72) were significantly correlated, but attenuated with MVPA modified bouts (≥10 minutes sustained activity).

Conclusions:

LA accumulation differs between demographic subgroups and is related to MVPA: adults who spend more minutes and steps in MVPA also spend them in LA.

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Activity and Sedentary Behavior on Cognitive Health in Older Adults David E. Vance * Virginia G. Wadley * Karlene K. Ball * Daniel L. Roenker * Matthew Rizzo * 7 2005 13 3 294 313 10.1123/japa.13.3.294 No Sustained Effect of Aerobic or Resistance Training on Insulin Sensitivity in Nonobese

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.1123/jsep.35.4.408 Psychological Mechanisms Underlying Doping Attitudes in Sport: Motivation and Moral Disengagement Ken Hodge * * Elaine A. Hargreaves David Gerrard Chris Lonsdale 8 2013 35 4 419 432 10.1123/jsep.35.4.419 Research Note Acute Exercise Enhances Preschoolers’ Ability to Sustain

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Original Research What Sustains Long-Term Adherence to Structured Physical Activity After a Cardiac Event? Antonia M. Martin * Catherine B. Woods * 4 2012 20 2 135 147 10.1123/japa.20.2.135 Research Determinants of Neighborhood Activity of Adults Age 70 and Over: A Mixed-Methods Study Afroditi

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75 10.1123/japa.7.1.62 Frontal Asymmetry, Dispositional Affect, and Physical Activity in Older Adults Eric E. Hall * Steven J. Petruzzello * 1 1999 7 1 76 90 10.1123/japa.7.1.76 Incidence and Determinants of Injuries Sustained by Older Women during a Walking Program A. Elizabeth Ready * Glen

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1 93 106 10.1123/jsep.2013-0100 Driving and Sustaining Culture Change in Olympic Sport Performance Teams: A First Exploration and Grounded Theory Andrew Cruickshank * Dave Collins * Sue Minten * 2 2014 36 1 107 120 10.1123/jsep.2013-0133 The Digest The Digest Christopher Shields Jennifer

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COMMENTARY 3 WINS Fitness: Sustainable, Affordable, and Scalable Fitness Program for the Next Generation Steven Loy * 16 4 241 242 10.1123/jpah.2019-0030 jpah.2019-0030 ORIGINAL RESEARCH Associations of the Built Environment With Physical Activity and Sedentary Time in Ugandan Outpatients With