This study was conducted to assess the level of stress and efficacy at the entry and exit of a traditional student-teaching experience in physical education. Significant positive changes during student teaching were illustrated on these stress variables: role ambiguity, role overload, role preparedness, and illness symptoms. No significant changes were made in personal teacher efficacy (PTE) and general teacher efficacy (GTE) during the course of the study. No significant relationships were found between the other dependent variables (gender, teaching level, prior field experiences) and stress/efficacy scores. Correlations were also reported between the majority of stress variables with personal teacher efficacy. Implications of the findings for student teachers and induction teachers are discussed.
Paul C. Paese and Steve Zinkgraf
Mats M. Hordvik, Ann MacPhail and Lars T. Ronglan
In this study, we articulate and share our knowledge and understanding of teaching and learning Sport Education in physical education teacher education (PETE): (a) How did the PETE faculty member experience teaching about teaching Sport Education? and (b) How did the PSTs experience learning about teaching Sport Education?
One PETE faculty member (the first author) and twelve PSTs took part in a university Sport Education unit. Data were collected through the PETE faculty member’s open-ended reflective diary and focus groups with three PST teams.
The PETE faculty member and PSTs experienced various challenges such as bridging theory and practice when learning about teaching Sport Education and articulating the “what”, “how” and “why” when teaching about teaching Sport Education.
Sport Education is a complex curriculum and instructional model, encouraging further interrogation of the theoretical implications of the model.
Nicholas L. Holt, William B. Strean and Enrique García Bengoechea
There has been considerable debate regarding the delivery and outcomes of games experiences in physical education. In particular, the relative benefits of the Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) approach have been compared to traditional skill-drill approaches to games teaching. However, many discussions of TGfU have focused on cognitive and psychomotor learning outcomes, neglecting the affective domain. The purpose of this article is to review TGfU research, to present an extended TGfU model, and to suggest new avenues for future research and practice. Future research directions include consideration of learning with respect to cognitive, behavioral, and affective characteristics.
Inez Rovegno, Weiyun Chen and John Todorovich
The purpose of this study was to describe four accomplished teachers’ enacted pedagogical content knowledge of teaching hand dribbling to third grade children. We aimed to investigate and make accessible the knowledge and wisdom of practicing teachers. We videotaped three sequential lessons of each teacher and conducted formal and informal interviews. Three themes emerged from a grounded analysis of the data: (a) approaching dribbling content as a network of connected movements and tactics, (b) refining movement patterns based on knowledge initially acquired in younger grades, and (c) teaching the cognitive processes (learning orientation, self-regulation, movement and tactical analysis and critique, and making decisions) embedded in and relevant to lesson dribbling activities.
Terry L. Rizzo and Don R. Kirkendall
This study assessed the association between demographic attributes (gender, age, year in school, experience with students with disabilities, perceived competence in teaching students with disabilities, and academic preparation regarding individuals with disabilities) of undergraduate physical education majors and their attitudes toward teaching students labeled educable mentally retarded (EMR), learning disabled (LD), and behaviorally disordered (BD). Future physical educators (n = 226) were asked to complete the Physical Educators’ Attitudes Toward Teaching the Handicapped questionnaire, and 174 (77%) agreed. Data were collected on the first day of classes of a 16-week semester. Results from forward stepwise multiple-regression procedures showed that perceived competence and academic preparation regarding individuals with disabilities were the best predictors of favorable attitudes in general, and for EMR and LD. Results also showed that for BD, age and year in school were the best predictors of favorable attitudes. Thus, attitudes vary as a function of disabling conditions. The results provide evidence that there is a need to promote positive attitudes toward teaching individuals with disabilities.
Amaury Samalot-Rivera and David L. Porretta
The purpose of this study was to determine adapted physical educators’ perceptions and practices about teaching social skills to students with disabilities. A questionnaire based on Bandura’s social learning theory concept of modeling was developed and mailed to an entire frame of 426 adapted physical education teachers in the state of Ohio. Face and content validity as well as test/retest reliability (0.89) were established. Of those that were surveyed, 53% (225 teachers; 148 females and 77 males) responded. Results indicate that 93% (209) believe it is important to explicitly teach social skills in PE; however, 60% (135) expressed not feeling properly prepared to teach them. Teachers with more than 20 years of teaching experience were more likely to actually teach social skills. When compared with other teachers with less years teaching, however, they identified a greater need for training in the teaching of social skills. Results are discussed relative to teacher preparation and practices as well as social skills taught for general education and community integration.
Paul G. Schempp
Recent years have seen an increase in the amount of research activity devoted to teaching in physical education. The result of these efforts has been a substantial growth in the body of knowledge regarding movement pedagogy. Most of these undertakings have been completed with the natural science mode of inquiry as the research model. Thus, the natural science research paradigm has emerged as the dominant mode of inquiry and analysis for research on teaching in physical education. In spite of the major contributions made in the engagement of the natural science model, the subscription to a dominant mode of inquiry holds serious consequences in the development of any body of knowledge. The underlying assumptions of a paradigm pose limits to the knowledge to which one has access. Therefore, this paper offers an analysis of the assumptions embedded in the operationalization of the natural science research paradigm in order to illuminate their limitations for research on teaching in physical education. The assumptions of an alternative, qualitative paradigm are also identified and discussed in terms of their potential for researching beyond the limits of the natural science model. It was not the intent of this paper to declare one paradigm superior to any other, but rather to recognize the need for alternative perspectives in researching the phenomenon of teaching physical education.
Keith D. Beckett
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of Mosston and Ashworth’s (1986) practice (Style B) and inclusion (Style E) styles of teaching or class composition on college students’ achievement of selected physical education outcomes. Achievement was measured by the use of a soccer-ball-juggle test and a written knowledge test. One hundred and twenty college students were pretested on the soccer-ball juggle. Students who scored in the upper and lower 25% were placed in a group labeled heterogeneous; students scoring in the middle 50% were placed in a group labeled homogeneous. Subsequent to the pretest, a 30-minute lesson on soccer-ball juggling was provided to students by members of the college physical education staff using the assigned teaching style, followed by the posttest and the written knowledge test. All teaching was observed and coded by the researcher to determine teacher and student behavior. Results on soccer-ball juggling yielded significant gains between pretest and posttest for both styles; a retention test verified improvement was retained in both styles. No significant differences between teaching style or class composition were uncovered on the motor task. However, significant differences on the written knowledge test were revealed: Students in Style E produced higher scores than students in Style B.
Shihui Chen, Ernest Lange, Paul Miko, Jiabei Zhang and Daniel Joseph
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the progressive time delay (PTD) procedure on teaching gross motor skills to adult males with severe mental retardation. A multiple probe design across three skills and replicated across 4 participants was utilized. Results indicated that a PTD procedure with a 0 to 5 s delay was effective in teaching 4 participants three gross motor skills (tee-ball batting, softball pitching, croquet striking) over a period of 13 weeks. Data on effectiveness were analyzed in terms of the number of instructional sessions (M = 9.58), the number of trials (M = 105.41), the number of min (M = 84.66), and the number of performing errors to criterion (M = 4.08%). A maintenance level (M = 96.87%) was also determined across 4 participants and three skills on the 1st, 4th, 14th, and 24th sessions after terminating the PTD instruction.
David Kirk and Ann MacPhail
Bunker and Thorpe first proposed Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) in 1982 as an alternative to traditional, technique-led approaches to games teaching and learning. Despite interest from teachers and researchers, there has been no attempt to review the TGfU model. This is an oversight, given the important advances in educational learning theory and ecological approaches to motor control since the early 1980s. The purpose of this paper is to present a new version of the TGfU model that draws on a situated learning perspective. The paper describes the TGfU approach, overviews recent research on TGfU, and outlines a situated learning perspective. This perspective is then applied to rethinking the TGfU model. The intended outcome of the paper is the provision a more robust and sophisticated version of the TGfU model that can inform future directions in the practice of and research on TGfU.