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Natalie J. Lander, Lisa Hanna, Helen Brown, Amanda Telford, Philip J. Morgan, Jo Salmon and Lisa M. Barnett

Purpose:

Competence in fundamental movement skills (FMSs) is positively associated with physical activity, fitness, and healthy weight status. However, adolescent girls exhibit very low levels of fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency.

Method:

In the current study, interviews were carried out with physical education teachers to investigate their perspectives of: (i) the importance and relevance of teaching FMSs to Year 7 girls, and (ii) the factors influencing effective FMS instruction.

Results:

There were two major findings in the data: Year 7 was perceived to be a critical period to instruct girls in FMSs; and current teaching practices were perceived to be suboptimal for effective FMS instruction.

Conclusion:

Apparent deficits in current FMS teaching practice may be improved with more comprehensive teacher training (both during physical education teacher education (PETE) and in in-service professional development) in pedagogical strategies, curriculum interpretation, and meaningful assessment.

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Gay L. Timken and Jeff McNamee

The purpose of this study was to gauge preservice physical education teachers’ perspectives during one physical activity pedagogy course, teaching outdoor and adventure education. Teacher belief, occupational socialization and experiential learning theories overlaid this work. Over three years 57 students (37 males; 20 females) participated in the course. Each student wrote four reflections during their term of enrollment based on semistructured questions regarding their own participation, thoughts on K-12 students, and teaching and learning in physical education. Reflections were analyzed using constant comparative methods. Three main themes emerged from the data: 1) fear, risk and challenge, (subthemes of skill and motivation; self-awareness); 2) lifetime activity; and 3) teaching physical education (subthemes of K-12 students; curriculum). Implications for physical education teacher education suggest the inclusion of novel physical activities that elicit strong emotional responses due to challenges with perceived and/or actual risk as a viable method for inducing belief change.

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Iva Obrusnikova and Suzanna R. Dillon

As the first step of an instrument development, teaching challenges that occur when students with autism spectrum disorders are educated in general physical education were elicited using Goldfried and D’Zurilla’s (1969) behavioral-analytic model. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 43 certified physical educators (29 women and 14 men) using a demographic questionnaire and an elicitation questionnaire. Participants listed 225 teaching challenges, 46% related to cooperative, 31% to competitive, and 24% to individualistic learning situations. Teaching challenges were categorized into nine themes: inattentive and hyperactive behaviors, social impairment, emotional regulation difficulties, difficulties understanding and performing tasks, narrow focus and inflexible adherence to routines and structure, isolation by classmates, negative effects on classmates’ learning, and need for support.

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Athanasia Chatzipanteli, Nikolaos Digelidis and Athanasios G. Papaioannou

The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of student-activated teaching styles through a specific intervention program on students’ self-regulation, lesson satisfaction, and motivation. Six hundred and one 7th grade students (318 boys and 283 girls), aged 13 years were randomly assigned to an experimental group and a comparison group. The teachers who taught the students assigned to the experimental group used student-activated teaching styles, and specifically the reciprocal, self-check, inclusion, guided discovery, convergent discovery, and divergent discovery styles. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that the experimental group, compared with the comparison group, had higher scores in lesson satisfaction, intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, and metacognitive activities, and lower scores in external motivation, and amotivation. The study revealed that going beyond the command and/or the practice style of teaching, PE teachers can enhance students’ metacognitive skills, lesson satisfaction and intrinsic motivation.

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Stephen Silverman and Mara Manson

As a part of their doctoral education, students complete a dissertation. Examining these dissertations can provide one analysis of research in a field. The primary purpose of this study was to analyze all physical education dissertations with a teaching focus that were completed between 1985 and 1999. All possible dissertations were examined through the electronic version of Dissertation Abstracts International. For the teaching dissertations (n = 201), each abstract was coded for (a) research type, (b) research focus, (c) student variable measured, (d) observation used, (e) interview used, (f) other methods used, (g) population, (h) general methodology, and (i) statistics reported/used. Most research on teaching dissertations addressed issues related to teacher effectiveness and focused on motor skill learning and attitude. There was an increase in qualitative methods from those reported in a previous study (Silverman, 1987). While there were methodological advances, many dissertations still used methods that were not informed by the research methods literature.

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Inez Rovegno, Weiyun Chen and John Todorovich

The purpose of this study was to describe four accomplished teachers’ enacted pedagogical content knowledge of teaching hand dribbling to third grade children. We aimed to investigate and make accessible the knowledge and wisdom of practicing teachers. We videotaped three sequential lessons of each teacher and conducted formal and informal interviews. Three themes emerged from a grounded analysis of the data: (a) approaching dribbling content as a network of connected movements and tactics, (b) refining movement patterns based on knowledge initially acquired in younger grades, and (c) teaching the cognitive processes (learning orientation, self-regulation, movement and tactical analysis and critique, and making decisions) embedded in and relevant to lesson dribbling activities.

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Nicholas L. Holt, William B. Strean and Enrique García Bengoechea

There has been considerable debate regarding the delivery and outcomes of games experiences in physical education. In particular, the relative benefits of the Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) approach have been compared to traditional skill-drill approaches to games teaching. However, many discussions of TGfU have focused on cognitive and psychomotor learning outcomes, neglecting the affective domain. The purpose of this article is to review TGfU research, to present an extended TGfU model, and to suggest new avenues for future research and practice. Future research directions include consideration of learning with respect to cognitive, behavioral, and affective characteristics.

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Mats M. Hordvik, Ann MacPhail and Lars T. Ronglan

Purpose:

In this study, we articulate and share our knowledge and understanding of teaching and learning Sport Education in physical education teacher education (PETE): (a) How did the PETE faculty member experience teaching about teaching Sport Education? and (b) How did the PSTs experience learning about teaching Sport Education?

Method:

One PETE faculty member (the first author) and twelve PSTs took part in a university Sport Education unit. Data were collected through the PETE faculty member’s open-ended reflective diary and focus groups with three PST teams.

Results:

The PETE faculty member and PSTs experienced various challenges such as bridging theory and practice when learning about teaching Sport Education and articulating the “what”, “how” and “why” when teaching about teaching Sport Education.

Conclusion:

Sport Education is a complex curriculum and instructional model, encouraging further interrogation of the theoretical implications of the model.

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Amaury Samalot-Rivera and David L. Porretta

The purpose of this study was to determine adapted physical educators’ perceptions and practices about teaching social skills to students with disabilities. A questionnaire based on Bandura’s social learning theory concept of modeling was developed and mailed to an entire frame of 426 adapted physical education teachers in the state of Ohio. Face and content validity as well as test/retest reliability (0.89) were established. Of those that were surveyed, 53% (225 teachers; 148 females and 77 males) responded. Results indicate that 93% (209) believe it is important to explicitly teach social skills in PE; however, 60% (135) expressed not feeling properly prepared to teach them. Teachers with more than 20 years of teaching experience were more likely to actually teach social skills. When compared with other teachers with less years teaching, however, they identified a greater need for training in the teaching of social skills. Results are discussed relative to teacher preparation and practices as well as social skills taught for general education and community integration.

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Paul G. Schempp

Recent years have seen an increase in the amount of research activity devoted to teaching in physical education. The result of these efforts has been a substantial growth in the body of knowledge regarding movement pedagogy. Most of these undertakings have been completed with the natural science mode of inquiry as the research model. Thus, the natural science research paradigm has emerged as the dominant mode of inquiry and analysis for research on teaching in physical education. In spite of the major contributions made in the engagement of the natural science model, the subscription to a dominant mode of inquiry holds serious consequences in the development of any body of knowledge. The underlying assumptions of a paradigm pose limits to the knowledge to which one has access. Therefore, this paper offers an analysis of the assumptions embedded in the operationalization of the natural science research paradigm in order to illuminate their limitations for research on teaching in physical education. The assumptions of an alternative, qualitative paradigm are also identified and discussed in terms of their potential for researching beyond the limits of the natural science model. It was not the intent of this paper to declare one paradigm superior to any other, but rather to recognize the need for alternative perspectives in researching the phenomenon of teaching physical education.