Exercise testing has become an important method for evaluation of pediatric patients with known or suspected arrhythmias. It has proven useful in patients with exercise-induced symptoms, patients with congenital heart disease, and patients with pacemakers. Exercise has predictable effects on the normal electrocardiogram. Exercise can also bring out abnormalities in cardiac rhythm that may not be present at rest. The results of exercise testing can provide information that directs further therapy or evaluation. Exercise testing also helps to evaluate the efficacy of antiarrhythmic therapy in some patients.
Steven R. Neish, Richard A. Friedman and J. Timothy Bricker
Lindley McDavid, Meghan H. McDonough, Bonnie T. Blankenship and James M. LeBreton
an experimental design. Consequently, the causal pathways between the three positive interpersonal characteristics, psychological need satisfaction, and well-being need to be tested. In the physical education context, prior research that adopted an experimental design focused on increasing the use of
Gemma N. Parry, Lee C. Herrington and Ian G. Horsley
, there is presently no gold-standard test of upper-limb force development performance. Previously, medicine ball throws, bench press, and timed push-ups have been utilized to monitor and assess training regime effectiveness with regard to upper-limb muscular performance. 3 – 7 There is a paucity of
Michael Wilkinson, Damon Leedale-Brown and Edward M. Winter
This study examined the validity of a squash-specific test designed to assess endurance capability and aerobic power.
Eight squash players and eight runners performed, in a counterbalanced order, incremental treadmill (TT) and squash-specific (ST) tests to volitional exhaustion. Breath-by-breath oxygen uptake was determined by a portable analyzer and heart rate was assessed telemetrically. Time to exhaustion was recorded.
Independent t tests revealed longer time to exhaustion for squash players on the ST than runners (775 ± 103 vs. 607 ± 81 s; P = .003) but no difference between squash players and runners in maximal oxygen uptake ( Vo2max) or maximum heart rate (HRmax). Runners exercised longer on the TT (521 ± 135 vs. 343 ± 115 s; P = .01) and achieved higher Vo2max than squash players (58.6 ± 7.5 vs. 49.6 ± 7.3 mL·kg−1·min−1; P = .03), with no group difference in HRmax. Paired t tests showed squash players achieved higher Vo2max on the ST than the TT (52.2 ± 7.1 vs. 49.6 ± 7.3 mL·kg−1·min−1; P = .02). The Vo2max and HRmax of runners did not differ between tests, nor did the HRmax of squash players. ST and TT Vo2max correlated highly in squash players and runners (r = .94, P < .001; r = .88, P = .003).
The ST discriminated endurance performance between squash players and runners and elicited higher Vo2max in squash players than a nonspecifc test. The results suggest that the ST is a valid assessment of Vo2max and endurance capability in squash players.
Francis X. Short and Joseph P. Winnick
This manuscript provides information on the rationale for the selection of the muscular strength and endurance test items associated with the Brockport Physical Fitness Test for youngsters with mental retardation and mild limitations in fitness, visual impairment (blindness), cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, or congenital anomalies or amputations. Information on the validity, attainability, and reliability of the 16 tests and their criterion-referenced standards is provided. Suggestions are made for future research.
Francis X. Short and Joseph P. Winnick
This article describes the procedures and rationale for the selection of test items and criterion-referenced standards associated with the aerobic functioning component of the Brockport Physical Fitness Test. Validity and reliability information is provided for the 1-mile run/walk, the PACER (16-m and 20-m), and the Target Aerobic Movement Test. The relevance of these test items and standards for youngsters with mental retardation and mild limitations in fitness, visual impairments (blindness), cerebral palsy, and spinal cord injuries, and for those with congenital anomalies or amputations is highlighted. Information on the attainability of the selected standards also is provided. Possible topics for future research are suggested.
Dai Sugimoto, Benton E. Heyworth, Jeff J. Brodeur, Dennis E. Kramer, Mininder S. Kocher and Lyle J. Micheli
, thigh symmetry, and Lachman or anterior drawer tests, 5 , 6 and other health care practitioners, including physical therapists and athletic trainers, have traditionally evaluated lower-extremity strength using dynamometers. 5 – 8 One study conducted by Wells et al 9 reported that ∼60% of young
Takashi Abe, Jeremy P. Loenneke, Robert S. Thiebaud and Mark Loftin
clinical field tests for young, middle-aged, and older adults. 8 A standard model for the measurement of HGS is a hydraulic system that has 5 handle positions to select the optimal grip span (the distance of the dynamometer’s grip bars). 9 , 10 In many cases, the optimal grip span has been set at the
Matthew T. Crill, Christopher P. Kolba and Gary S. Chleboun
The lunge is commonly used to assess lower extremity strength, flexibility, and balance, yet few objective data exist on it.
To determine the reliability of the lunge test, determine whether there are gender differences associated with it, and study the relationships between lunge distance and height and leg length.
Single-factor repeated measures.
57: 29 men, 28 women.
Main Outcome Measures:
Anterior lunge (AL) and lateral lunge (LL) distance, height, and leg length (cm).
LL distance (131.3 ± 12.3) is significantly greater than AL distance (113.7 ± 17.2) in men and in women (LL 113.6 ± 10.5, AL 96.6 ± 11.1). There was no significant correlation for height or leg length to any lunge measurement in men or women.
The lunge can be used as a reliable test to measure lower extremity function. Right- and left-leg lunge distances should not differ, and LL will always be greater than AL.
Iñigo Mujika, Greg McFadden, Mark Hubbard, Kylie Royal and Allan Hahn
To develop and validate an intermittent match-fitness test for water-polo players.
Eight male junior players performed the Water Polo Intermittent Shuttle Test (WIST) twice to assess test reliability. To assess test sensitivity and validity, 104 male and female players from different competition standards and playing positions were tested. Eighteen players performed the WIST 5 times throughout a season to track fitness changes. Twelve players performed the WIST 48 hours before 4 consecutive National League games, and coaches awarded individual match-fitness scores based on game performances to assess the relationship between match fitness and test results. Heart rate (HR) and blood lactate (Lablood) were measured during and after each test, respectively.
Test–retest performance values were 216 ± 90 vs 229 ± 96 m (r = .98, P = .0001, coefficient of variation [CV] = 5.4%), peak HR 190 ± 8 vs 192 ± 10 bpm (r = .96, P = .0002, CV = 1.2%), and Lablood 7.0 ± 1.8 vs 6.4 ± 1.6 mmol/L (r = .84, P = .0092, CV = 8.8%). Significant differences were observed among different standards of play (range junior regional females 102 ± 10 m, senior international males 401 ± 30 m) and playing positions (field players 305 ± 154 m, center forwards 255 ± 118, goal keepers 203 ± 135 m). Test performance was lower in the early season (344 ± 118 m) than the remainder of the season (range 459 ± 138 to 550 ± 176 m). WIST performance and match-fitness scores correlated for all field players (r = .57, P = .054) but more highly for field players other than center forwards (r = .83, P = .0027).
The WIST is a reliable, sensitive, and valid match-fitness test for water-polo players. It could become a useful tool to assess the effects of different interventions on match fitness.