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Michael J. Hartman, Brandon Clark, Debra A. Bemben, J. Lon Kilgore and Michael G. Bemben

Context:

Many elite athletes use increased daily training frequencies as a means to increase training load without substantial published literature to support this practice.

Purpose:

To compare the physiological responses to twice- and once-daily training sessions with similar training volumes.

Methods:

Ten nationally competitive male weightlifters (age 20.5 ± 1.2 y, body mass 92.9 ± 23.6 kg, training history 5.5 ± 1.5 y) were matched on body mass and training experience, then randomly assigned to train either once or twice daily for 3 wk. Isometric knee-extension strength (ISO), muscle cross-sectional area, vertical-jump peak power, resting hormone concentrations, neuromuscular activation (EMG), and weightlifting performance were obtained before and after the experimental training period.

Results:

All dependent measures before the training intervention were similar for both groups. A 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA did not reveal any significant main effects (group or trial) or interaction effects (group × trial) for any of the dependent variables. There were also no significant group differences when parameters were expressed as percentage change, but the twice-daily training group had a greater percentage change in ISO (+5.1% vs +3.2%), EMG (+20.3% vs +9.1%), testosterone (+10.5% vs +6.4%), and testosterone:cortisol ratio (−10.5% vs +1.3%) than did the once-daily training group.

Conclusions:

There were no additional benefits from increased daily training frequency in national-level male weightlifters, but the increase in ISO and EMG activity for the twice-daily group might provide some rationale for dividing training load in an attempt to reduce the risk of overtraining.

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Benjamin Henry, Todd McLoda, Carrie L. Docherty and John Schrader

Context:

Peroneal reaction to sudden inversion has been determined to be too slow to overcome the joint motion. A focused plyometric training program may decrease the muscle's reaction time.

Objective:

To determine the effect of a 6-wk plyometric training program on peroneus longus reaction time.

Design:

Repeated measures.

Setting:

University research laboratory.

Participants:

48 healthy volunteers (age 20.0 ± 1.2 y, height 176.1 ± 16.9 cm, weight 74.5 ± 27.9 kg) from a large Midwestern university. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a training group or a control group.

Interventions:

Independent variables were group at 2 levels (training and no training) and time at 2 levels (pretest and posttest). The dependent variable was peroneal latency measured with surface electromyography. A custom-made trapdoor device capable of inverting the ankle to 30° was also used. Latency data were obtained from the time the trapdoor dropped until the peroneus longus muscle activated. Peroneal latency was measured before and after the 6-wk training period. The no-training group was instructed to maintain current activities. The training group performed a 6-wk plyometric protocol 3 times weekly. Data were examined with a repeated-measures ANOVA with 1 within-subject factor (time at 2 levels) and 1 between-subjects factor (group at 2 levels). A priori alpha level was set at P < .05.

Main Outcome Measures:

Pretest and posttest latency measurements (ms) were recorded for the peroneus longus muscle.

Results:

The study found no significant group-by-time interaction (F 1,46 = 0.03, P = .87). In addition, there was no difference between the pretest and posttest values (pretest = 61.76 ± 14.81 ms, posttest = 59.24 ± 12.28 ms; P = .18) and no difference between the training and no-training groups (training group = 59.10 ± 12.18 ms, no-training group = 61.79 ± 15.18 ms; P = .43).

Conclusions:

Although latency measurements were consistent with previous studies, the plyometric training program did not cause significant change in the peroneus longus reaction time.

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Leyre Gravina, Frankie F. Brown, Lee Alexander, James Dick, Gordon Bell, Oliver C. Witard and Stuart D.R. Galloway

Omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) supplementation could promote adaptation to soccer-specific training. We examined the impact of a 4-week period of n-3 FA supplementation during training on adaptations in 1RM knee extensor strength, 20-m sprint speed, vertical jump power, and anaerobic endurance capacity (Yo-Yo test) in competitive soccer players. Twenty six soccer players were randomly assigned to one of two groups: n-3 FA supplementation (n-3 FA; n = 13) or placebo (n = 13). Both groups performed two experimental trial days. Assessments of physical function and respiratory function were conducted pre (PRE) and post (POST) supplementation. Training session intensity, competitive games and nutritional intake were monitored during the 4-week period. No differences were observed in respiratory measurements (FEV1, FVC) between groups. No main effect of treatment was observed for 1RM knee extensor strength, explosive leg power, or 20 m sprint performance, but strength improved as a result of the training period in both groups (p < .05). Yo-Yo test distance improved with training in the n-3 FA group only (p < .01). The mean difference (95% CI) in Yo-Yo test distance completed from PRE to POST was 203 (66–340) m for n-3 FA, and 62 (-94–217) m for placebo, with a moderate effect size (Cohen’s d of 0.52). We conclude that 4 weeks of n-3 FA supplementation does not improve strength, power or speed assessments in competitive soccer players. However, the increase in anaerobic endurance capacity evident only in the n-3 FA treatment group suggests an interaction that requires further study.

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Floris C. Wardenaar, Rianne Dijkhuizen, Ingrid J.M. Ceelen, Emma Jonk, Jeanne H.M. De Vries, Renger F. Witkamp and Marco Mensink

Purpose:

The objective of this study was to investigate whether ultramarathon runners were able to meet nutrition recommendations during a training period and on a competition day.

Methods:

In preparation for a 60 or 120 km ultramarathon covering a varied terrain, male and female ultramarathon runners (n = 68, age 46.5 ± 7.1 y) reported habitual dietary intake during three independent days using a web-based 24-hr recall and questionnaires. The diet was assessed using probability of inadequacy or by qualitative evaluation using reference dietary intakes or sports nutrition recommendations. A small group of 120 km runners (n = 4) was observed continuously during the race. After the race, 60 km runners (n = 41) received a questionnaire to assess dietary intake and gastrointestinal (GI) distress on the race day. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (r) were applied to investigate the association between intake and general GI distress symptoms.

Results:

In men and women, habitual mean carbohydrate (CHO) intake was lower than recommended, as was mean protein intake by women. CHO intake during the race was <60 g/h in 75% of the athletes. A large variation of nutrient and fluid intake was seen. GI distress during the race was reported in 82% of the runners; severe GI distress was low. In general, moderate, mostly negative, correlations with nutrient intake were seen for GI distress.

Conclusions:

Sports nutrition recommendations for the habitual diet were not achieved. During a competition day, a large variation was found in nutrient intake; this may be related to a high incidence of GI distress.

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Jennifer Sygo, Alexandra M. Coates, Erik Sesbreno, Margo L. Mountjoy and Jamie F. Burr

Low energy availability (LEA), and subsequent relative energy deficiency in sport, has been observed in endurance, aesthetic, and team sport athletes, with limited data on prevalence in athletes in short-burst activities such as sprinting. We examined prevalence of signs and symptoms of LEA in elite female sprinters at the start of the training season (PRE), and at the end of a 5-month indoor training period (POST). Four of 13 female sprinters (31%) presented at PRE testing with at least one primary (amenorrhea, low bone mineral density, low follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, or estradiol, resting metabolic rate ≤29 kcal/kg fat-free mass, Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire score ≥8) and one secondary indicator of LEA (fasting blood glucose <4 mmol/L, free triiodothyronine <3.5 pmol/L, ferritin <25 μg/L, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol >3.0 mmol/L, fasting insulin <20 pmol/L, low insulin-like growth factor-1, systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg, and/or diastolic blood pressure <60 mmHg). At POST, seven out of 13 athletes (54%) presented with at least one primary and one secondary indicator of LEA, three of whom had also presented with indicators of LEA at PRE. Five out of 13 (39%) athletes had previous stress fracture history, though this was not associated with current indicators of LEA (PRE: r = .52, p = .07; POST: r = −.07, p = .82). In conclusion, elite female sprinters may present with signs and symptoms of LEA, even after off-season rest. Medical and coaching staff should be aware of the signs and symptoms of LEA and relative energy deficiency in sport and should include appropriate screening and intervention strategies when working with sprinters.

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Jaime Fernandez-Fernandez, David Sanz, Jose Manuel Sarabia and Manuel Moya

Purpose:

To compare the effects of combining high-intensity training (HIT) and sport-specific drill training (MT) versus sportspecific drill training alone (DT) on fitness performance characteristics in young tennis players.

Methods:

Twenty young tennis players (14.8 ± 0.1 y) were assigned to either DT (n = 10) or MT (n = 10) for 8 wk. Tennis drills consisted of two 16- to 22-min on-court exercise sessions separated by 3 min of passive rest, while MT consisted of 1 sport-specific DT session and 1 HIT session, using 16–22 min of runs at intensities (90–95%) related to the velocity obtained in the 30–15 Intermittent Fitness Test (VIFT) separated by 3 min of passive rest. Pre- and posttests included peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), VIFT, speed (20 m, with 5- and 10-m splits), 505 Agility Test, and countermovement jump (CMJ).

Results:

There were significant improvements after the training period in VO2peak (DT 2.4%, ES = moderate; MT 4.2%, ES = large) and VIFT (DT 2.2%, ES = small; MT 6.3%, ES = large) for both DT and MT, with no differences between training protocols. Results also showed a large increase in the 505 Agility Test after MT, while no changes were reported in the other tests (sprint and CMJ), either for MT or DT.

Conclusions:

Even though both training programs resulted in significant improvements in aerobic performance, a mixed program combining tennis drills and runs based on the VIFT led to greater gains and should be considered the preferred training method for improving aerobic power in young athletes.

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Olivier Hue, Roland Monjo, Marc Lazzaro, Michelle Baillot, Philippe Hellard, Laurent Marlin and A. Jean-Etienne

The authors tested the effect of cold water ingestion during high-intensity training in the morning vs the evening on both core temperature (TC) and thermal perceptions of internationally ranked long-distance swimmers during a training period in a tropical climate. Nine internationally ranked long-distance swimmers (5 men and 4 women) performed 4 randomized training sessions (2 in the evening and 2 in the morning) with 2 randomized beverages with different temperatures for 3 consecutive days. After a standardized warm-up of 1000 m, the subjects performed a standardized training session that consisted of 10 × 100 m (start every 1′20″) at a fixed velocity. The swimmers were then followed for the next 3000 m of the training schedule. Heart rate (HR) was continuously monitored during the 10 × 100 m, whereas TC, thermal comfort, and thermal sensation (TS) were measured before and after each 1000-m session. Before and after each 1000 m, the swimmers were asked to drink 190 mL of neutral (26.5 ± 2.5°C) or cold (1.3 ± 0.3°C) water packaged in standardized bottles. Results demonstrated that cold water ingestion induced a significant effect on TC, with a pronounced decrease in the evening, resulting in significantly lower mean TC and lower mean delta TC in evening cold (EC) than in evening neutral (EN), concomitant with significantly lower TS in EC than in EN and a significant effect on exercise HR. Moreover, although TC increased significantly with time in MN, MC, and EN, TC was stabilized during exercise in EC. To conclude, we demonstrate that a cold beverage had a significant effect on TC, TS, and HR during training in high-level swimmers in a tropical climate, especially during evening training.

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Brent I. Smith, Denice Curtis and Carrie L. Docherty

Context : Deficits in ankle and hip strength and lower-extremity postural control are associated with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Following strength training, muscle groups demonstrate increased strength. This change is partially credited to improved neuromuscular control, and many studies have investigated ankle protocols for subjects with CAI. The effects of isolating hip musculature in strength training protocols in this population are not well understood. Objective: To examine the effects of hip strengthening on clinical and self-reported outcomes in patients with CAI. Design: Prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: Athletic training facility. Participants: Twenty-six participants with CAI (12 males and 14 females; age = 20.9 [1.5] y, height = 170.0 [12.7] cm, and mass = 77.5 [17.5] kg) were randomly assigned to training or control groups. Intervention: Participants completed either 4 weeks of supervised hip strengthening (resistance bands 3 times a week) or no intervention. Main Outcome Measures: Participants were assessed on 4 clinical measures (Star Excursion Balance Test in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions; Balance Error Scoring System; hip external rotation strength; and hip abduction strength) and a patient-reported measure (the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure activities of daily living and sports subscales) before and after the 4-week training period. Results: The training group displayed significantly improved posttest measures compared with the control group for hip abduction strength (training: 446.3 [77.4] N, control: 314.7 [49.6] N, P < .01); hip external rotation strength (training: 222.1 [48.7] N, control: 169.4 [34.6] N, P < .01); Star Excursion Balance Test reach in the anterior (training: 93.1% [7.4%], control: 90.2% [7.9%], P < .01), posteromedial (training: 96.3% [8.9%], control: 88.0% [8.8%], P < .01), and posterolateral (training: 95.4% [11.1%], control: 86.6% [9.6%], P < .01) directions; Balance Error Scoring System total errors (training: 9.9 [6.3] errors, control: 21.2 [6.3] errors, P < .01); and the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure-sports score (training: 88.0 [12.6], control: 84.8 [10.9], P < .01). Conclusion: Improved clinical and patient-reported outcomes in the training group suggest hip strengthening is beneficial in the management and prevention of recurrent symptoms associated with CAI.

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in Recreational Athletes with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Yukio Urabe * Mitsuo Ochi * Kiyoshi Onari * 11 2002 11 4 252 267 10.1123/jsr.11.4.252 Comparisons of Land-Based and Aquatic-Based Plyometric Programs during an 8-Week Training Period Michael G. Miller * David C. Berry

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.1123/ijsnem.22.5.383 Case Study: Nutrition and Training Periodization in Three Elite Marathon Runners Trent Stellingwerff * 10 2012 22 22 5 5 392 392 400 400 10.1123/ijsnem.22.5.392