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David V.B. James, Linda J. Reynolds and Sara Maldonado-Martin

Background:

Heart rate variability (HRV) has been promoted as a noninvasive method of evaluating autonomic influence on cardiac rhythm. Although female subjects predominate in the walking studies, no study to date has examined the influence of the duration of a moderate intensity walking physical activity bout on HRV in this population.

Methods:

Twelve healthy physically active middle-aged women undertook 2 conditions; 20min (W20) and 60min (W60) bouts of walking on a treadmill. Resting HRV measures were obtained before (−1 h), and 1 h and 24 h after the walking bouts.

Results:

Mean NN interval (ie, normal-to-normal intervals between adjacent QRS complexes) was significantly lower (P = .017) at +1 h in W60 (832, 686−979ms) compared with W20 (889, 732−1046ms). A borderline main effect for time was observed for both the SDNN intervals in W60 (P = .056), and for low frequency (LFabs) power in W60 (P = .047), with post hoc tests revealing a significant increase between −1 h (51, 33−69 ms and 847, 461−1556 ms2) and +1 h (65, 34−97ms and 1316, 569−3042 ms2) for SDNN and LFabs power, respectively, but no increase at +24h compared with −1 h.

Conclusions:

It appears that a walking bout of 60 min duration does alter cardiac autonomic influence in healthy active women, and this alteration is not evident after 20 min of walking. Given the rather subtle effect, further studies with larger sample sizes are required to explore the nature of the changes in cardiac autonomic influence following a prolonged bout of walking.

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Danielle M. Lambrick, Ann V. Rowlands and Roger G. Eston

This study assessed the nature of the perceived exertion response to treadmill running in 14 healthy 7–8 year-old children, using the Eston-Parfitt (E-P) Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale and a marble dropping task. For the E-P scale and the marble dropping task, the relationships between the RPE and work rate were best described as linear (R 2 = .96) and curvilinear (R 2 = .94), respectively. This study further suggests that individual respiratory-metabolic cues (oxygen uptake: O2, heart rate: HR, ventilation: V̇E) may significantly influence the overall RPE to varying degrees in young children. The E-P scale provides an intuitively meaningful and valid means of quantifying the overall perception of exertion in young, healthy children during treadmill running. The marble dropping task is a useful secondary measure of perceived exertion, which provides further insight into the nature of the perceived exertion response to exercise in young children.

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Elizabeth J. Protas and Sandrine Tissier

The purpose of this study was to pilot test a function-focused exercise intervention consisting of strength and gait-speed training in elders with reduced walking speed, decreased walking endurance, and functional impairment. Twelve participants, 77.2 years old (± 7.34), whose usual gait speed was <0.85 m/s, with walking endurance of <305 m in 5 min, and who were functionally impaired participated in a moderate-intensity exercise intervention. The training occurred 3 times per week, 75 min per session, for 3 months and combined 4 weeks of gait-speed training, walking exercise, and functional strengthening. The participants demonstrated mean usual gait speeds (≥1.0 m/s), endurance (≥350 m), and functional ability (≥10 score on performance battery) that were within normal limits after 12 weeks of training. Fastest gait speed (≥1.5 m/s) and muscle strength also improved significantly. Improvements were maintained during follow-up testing after 3–6 months. In summary, a 12-week intervention for frail, mobility-disabled participants led to improvements in walking, function, and strength.

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Edited by Thomas W. Rowland

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Alexandra Milligan, Chris Mills and Joanna Scurr

More and more studies are emerging reporting breast kinematics. These studies rarely present effect sizes, power, and variance in the data. Important inferences are drawn from these data, including applications to product design, breast pain assessment, sports performance effects, and more. The aim of the study was to explore the within-participant variance in breast kinematic data during a 5 km run. Multiplanar breast kinematics and within-participant variance, defined by the coefficient of variation, for 10 female participants wearing a low and high level breast support were calculated during a 5 km run. Greater within-participant variance was reported in the high level (mean = 15%) breast support compared with the low level (mean = 12%). Within-participant variance in breast kinematics did not change over the 5 km run. Differences in the magnitude of within-participant variance in breast kinematics were reported between directions of breast movement, with greater levels in the anteroposterior direction compared with mediolateral and vertical. It is important for the progression of this research area that the presence and sources of within-participant variance in breast kinematics are quantified and acknowledged, ensuring that the margin for meaningful differences can be reported.

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Hans U. Wessel, Janette F. Strasburger and Brett M. Mitchell

We have developed normal standards for the Bruce exercise (EX) protocol since a review of 875 studies in patients with congenital or acquired heart disease showed that only 5.1% achieved the predicted 50th percentile for EX time of the standards reported by Cumming, Everatt, and Hastman (Am. J Cardiol 41:69, 1978). Our data are based on 160 males and 103 females, age 4–18 years who met the following criteria: trivial or no heart disease, maximal effort, maximal EX heart rate (HR) > 180 beats/min, and normal resting and EX ECG without arrhythmia. The ECG was monitored continuously and HR computed from the ECG and the end of each minute of EX. Comparison with the predicted data of Cumming et al. for each age group by stage showed essentially identical submaximal EX heart rates but slightly lower maximal HR (–2%), which averaged 197 beats per minute in males and females. EX times were on average 15% lower than the predicted 50th percentile for most age groups in males and females. We developed regression equations, which predict exercise time from age and body size or age, body size and 2nd stage exercise heart rate. They better reflect the capabilities of untrained, asymptomatic children and adolescents seen in our laboratory in the 1990s than the Canadian data of 1978.

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John M. Schuna Jr., Daniel S. Hsia, Catrine Tudor-Locke and Neil M. Johannsen

in replacing typical workplace sedentary behavior with opportunities to accumulate low-intensity nonexercise physical activity using workstation alternatives. 12 Several examples of workstation alternatives include sit-to-stand desks, treadmill desks, and pedal desks. The latter 2 modalities

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Yoav Gimmon, Hisham Rashad, Ilan Kurz, Meir Plotnik, Raziel Riemer, Ronen Debi, Amir Shapiro and Itshak Melzer

between the aging groups and young participants. We used a dynamic approach where the gait velocity is controlled by treadmill across different walking speeds ( Barak Wagenaar, & Holt, 2006 ; Wagenaar & Beek, 1992 ), comparing age-related differences in gait asymmetry (GA) and phase coordination index

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Anna M. Ifarraguerri, Danielle M. Torp, Abbey C. Thomas and Luke Donovan

treadmill walking by reducing the lateral plantar pressure of their injured limb in response to receiving real-time video feedback. We hypothesized that, in response to real-time video feedback, participants with CAI would be able to decrease peak pressure and pressure-time integral on the lateral aspect of

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Takeshi Kokubo, Yuta Komano, Ryohei Tsuji, Daisuke Fujiwara, Toshio Fujii and Osamu Kanauchi

-Plasma after physical damage from a single exercise session in a treadmill model. In particular, we evaluated the feeling of fatigue and the relationship between spontaneous motor activity and changes in serum transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), an objective fatigue marker. We also evaluated the muscle