We cross validated the 20-m shuttle run test of aerobic capacity in children and adolescents with mild and moderate mental retardation (MR) using the population specific formula of Fernhall et al. (1998). Nine boys and 8 girls (age = 13.7 yr) completed a maximal treadmill protocol (measured V̇O2peak) and a 20-m shuttle run (predicted V̇O2peak). The measured peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak) was 39.4 ml kg-1 min-1. The relationship between measured and predicted V̇O2peak was r = .86 with an SEE of 6.2 ml kg-1 min-1. Multiple regression and Bland-Altman analyses showed that there was little bias, but the Bland-Altman analysis indicated highly variable limits of agreement (Bland & Altman 1986). Thus, the traditional approach (regression analysis) to concurrent validity revealed that the 20-m shuttle run is a valid indicator of V̇O2peak in these participants. The accuracy of prediction (Bland & Altman, 1986), however, was lower than expected in a population without MR.
Bo Fernhall, A. Lynn Millar, Kenneth H. Pitetti, Terri Hensen and Mathew D. Vukovsch
Patricia W. Bauer, James M. Pivarnik, Deborah L. Feltz, Nigel Paneth and Christopher J. Womack
Physical activity (PA) is an important component of a healthy pregnancy and postpartum period. Since prospective PA monitoring throughout gestation is difficult, a valid PA recall tool would be of significant benefit to researchers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of women to recall their physical activity performed during pregnancy and postpartum, 6 years later.
Thirty women participated in an historical PA recall study. Pregnancy PA was monitored carefully via assisted physical activity diary (PAD) 6 years before the current investigation. A Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (MAQ) was used to assess current and past pregnancy PA. The MAQ was administered for each time period in the order of most distant past to most current. Leisure time energy expenditure values (kcal/kg/day) calculated from the PAD and the MAQ were compared.
MAQ energy expenditure values showed good positive relationships with PAD measures at 20 weeks gestation (r = .57; P < .01), 32 weeks gestation (r = .85; P < .01), and 12 weeks postpartum (r = .86; P < .01). Correlations found were similar to those from previous PA recall and MAQ validation studies using nonpregnant populations.
The MAQ is an appropriate tool to assess pregnancy and postpartum PA in women 6 years postpartum.
Todd A. Smitherman, Patricia M. Dubbert, Karen B. Grothe, Jung Hye Sung, Darla E. Kendzor, Jared P. Reis, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Robert L. Newton Jr., Karen T. Lesniak and Herman A. Taylor Jr.
Physical inactivity has been consistently linked to cardiovascular disease, yet few instruments have been validated for assessment of physical activity in African Americans, a group particularly vulnerable to heart disease. The current study aimed to establish the psychometric properties of the activity survey used in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) among African Americans, the JHS Physical Activity Cohort survey (JPAC).
Test-retest reliability over 2 weeks was assessed using a convenience sample of 40 African Americans. Convergent validity with accelerometer and pedometer data were assessed in 2 samples from the JHS (N = 404 and 294, respectively).
Test-retest reliability was excellent, with intraclass correlations = .99 for the JPAC total and index scores. Higher JPAC total scores were significantly associated with higher raw accelerometer and pedometer counts. Spearman correlations between JPAC total scores and accelerometer (rho = .24) and pedometer counts (rho = .32) were consistent with these results. Most subscales were significantly correlated with the objective measures. The JPAC total score was most strongly associated with objectively-measured activity.
This study provides support for the reliability and validity of the JPAC as a tool for assessing physical activity among African Americans across a variety of domains.
Erin Hanlon and Cynthia Bir
Soccer heading has been studied previously with conflicting results. One major issue is the lack of knowledge regarding what actually occurs biomechanically during soccer heading impacts. The purpose of the current study is to validate a wireless head acceleration measurement system, head impact telemetry system (HITS) that can be used to collect head accelerations during soccer play. The HIT system was fitted to a Hybrid III (HIII) head form that was instrumented with a 3-2-2-2 accelerometer setup. Fifteen impact conditions were tested to simulate impacts commonly experienced during soccer play. Linear and angular acceleration were calculated for both systems and compared. Root mean square (RMS) error and cross correlations were also calculated and compared for both systems. Cross correlation values were very strong with r = .95 ± 0.02 for ball to head forehead impacts and r = .96 ± 0.02 for head to head forehead impacts. The systems showed a strong relationship when comparing RMS error, linear head acceleration, angular head acceleration, and the cross correlation values.
David P. McKee, Colin A.G. Boreham, Marie H. Murphy and Alan M. Nevill
Activity measurement using a uniaxial pedometer was validated against behavioral observation using the Children’s Activity Rating Scale (CARS) in 30 three- to four-year-old children in a nursery school setting. Correlations were calculated for individual children, whereas the relationship for the total group was investigated using multilevel linear regression. The mean counts for boys and girls for the Digiwalker™ were 66.8 (± 64.0) and 47.4 (± 61.3; p < .01) steps per 3 minutes, respectively, whereas the mean CARS scores for boys and girls were 1.8 (± 0.6) and 1.6 (± 0.6; p < .01), respectively. Within-child correlations for CARS versus Digiwalker counts ranged from 0.64 to 0.95 with a median value of 0.86, whereas the multilevel analysis provided strong evidence of a relationship between CARS and Digiwalker (all p < .001). Data from the current study show that gender differences in physical levels exist in very young children and support the utility of the Digiwalker pedometer for assessing physical activity in this age group.
Steven Baumann and Keith Henschen
In recent years, the academic standards of the collegiate student athlete have become a popular subject within the sociology of sport. In January 1983, the top competitive division of the NCAA voted to make more stringent the academic standards for participants in Division I intercollegiate sports. This was known as Proposal 48, and although the vote was 2 to 1 in favor of it, much criticism was also voiced. This study examines the relationship between the American College Testing Program (ACT) and actual grade point average (GPA) for 753 male and female athletes at the University of Utah during a 10-year period. A secondary purpose was to determine the predictive validity of a predicted GPA formula (PGPA) and high school grade point average (HSGPA) as estimates of actual GPA. Other purposes were to determine the correlation of ACT, PGPA, and HSGPA with regard to gender, race, and sport. Pearson product-moment correlations were utilized to establish relationships between ACT scores, PGPA, and HSGPA with actual GPA. A multiple correlation coefficient was computed and a regression equation was established. In addition, a cross-validation was performed on the existing data. Results indicated that an equation combining ACT and HSGPA is the best predictor for Caucasians, while HSGPA alone is the best predictor for non-Caucasians. Factors other than ACT scores appear to be better predictors of academic success for the student-athlete, thus casting doubt upon the validity of Proposal 48 for the NCAA.
Elena Bergamini, Pélagie Guillon, Valentina Camomilla, Hélène Pillet, Wafa Skalli and Aurelio Cappozzo
The proper execution of the sprint start is crucial in determining the performance during a sprint race. In this respect, when moving from the crouch to the upright position, trunk kinematics is a key element. The purpose of this study was to validate the use of a trunk-mounted inertial measurement unit (IMU) in estimating the trunk inclination and angular velocity in the sagittal plane during the sprint start. In-laboratory sprint starts were performed by five sprinters. The local acceleration and angular velocity components provided by the IMU were processed using an adaptive Kalman filter. The accuracy of the IMU inclination estimate and its consistency with trunk inclination were assessed using reference stereophotogrammetric measurements. A Bland-Altman analysis, carried out using parameters (minimum, maximum, and mean values) extracted from the time histories of the estimated variables, and curve similarity analysis (correlation coefficient > 0.99, root mean square difference < 7 deg) indicated the agreement between reference and IMU estimates, opening a promising scenario for an accurate in-field use of IMUs for sprint start performance assessment.
Katrina D. DuBose, Sandra Edwards, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Jared P. Reis and Martha L. Slattery
Historical physical activity (PA) questionnaires assess relationships between past PA and chronic diseases. The 4-Corner’s Historical Physical Activity Questionnaire (HPAQ) was validated in 78 middle-age women.
In 1996 and 1998, women kept PA records (PAR) for four consecutive days while wearing Caltrac accelerometers. In 2001, the same women recalled their past PA levels using the HPAQ. PA levels from the HPAQ were compared to PARs and the Caltrac. Race-adjusted Spearman correlations determined validity.
Low to modest correlations existed between PA (min/wk and MET-min/wk) from the HPAQ and PARs for moderate (r = 0.16 and 0.14, respectively), vigorous PA (r = 0.26 and 0.27, respectively; P < 0.05) and moderate-vigorous PA (r = 0.20 and 0.17, respectively). Moderate and moderate-vigorous, but not vigorous PA was positively related to energy expenditure expressed as kilocalories (r = 0.23, P < 0.05 and 0.22, −0.03, respectively) or PA volume (MET-min/wk) (r = 0.29, 0.29, P < 0.05 and 0.10, respectively).
The HPAQ can produce valid estimates of women’s past moderate and vigorous PA levels.
Leanne Liggett, Andrew Gray, Winsome Parnell, Rob McGee and Yvette McKenzie
Objective measures, such as accelerometers, are increasingly being used to measure physical activity (PA) levels in children, and the use of validated and reliable instruments is desirable when measuring the effectiveness of programs. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the New Lifestyles NL-1000 accelerometer among preschoolers using a modified version of the Children’s Activity Rating Scale (CARS).
Fourteen preschoolers wore the NL-1000 at their waist while the device measured activity levels [in seconds of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)]. They were also videoed for approximately 12 minutes while participating in normal activities at an early childhood center. At approximately 2-minute intervals, activity level readings derived from the NL-1000 were recorded. The video footage was analyzed using a modified CARS technique and the CARS scores compared with data obtained from the accelerometer.
Within subject reliability was measured using intraclass correlation coefficients (0.58 for CARS and 0.59 for NL-1000). Furthermore, 95% of the variation in CARS could be explained by variation in the accelerometer counts, with 2.4% of the variation being participant-specific.
The NL-1000 is a sufficiently reliable and valid tool for assessing MVPA in preschoolers.
David E. Conroy, Robert W. Motl and Evelyn G. Hall
Self-presentation has become an increasingly popular topic in exercise and sport psychology, yet few instruments exist to measure this construct. This paper describes two validation studies conducted on the Self-Presentation in Exercise Questionnaire (SPEQ), a paper-and-pencil instrument based on Leary and Kowalski’s (1990) two-component model of impression management. The SPEQ was designed to assess impression motivation (IM) and impression construction (IC) in exercise environments. The first study employed exploratory factor analysis to reduce a pool of 125 content-representative items to a subset of 41 items forming the hypothesized two-factor model of IM and IC. In the second study, the 41 items were further reduced using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in separate samples, and the reduced SPEQ also conformed to the IM and IC factor structure. The second study also provided initial evidence to support the convergent and discriminant validity of the SPEQ with theoretically salient constructs such as body surveillance, perceived physical ability, physical self-presentation confidence, social desirability, and social physique anxiety.