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Klaus Hauer, Stephen R. Lord, Ulrich Lindemann, Sarah E. Lamb, Kamiar Aminian and Michael Schwenk

The purpose of this study was to validate a new interview-administered physical activity questionnaire (Assessment of Physical Activity in Frail Older People; APAFOP) in older people with and without cognitive impairment. The authors assessed feasibility, validity, and test–retest reliability in 168 people (n = 78 with, n = 88 without cognitive impairment). Concurrent validity was assessed against an inertia-based motion sensor and an established questionnaire. Sensitivity to change was tested in an ongoing study in patients with mild to moderate dementia (n = 81). Assessment of physical activity by the APAFOP and the motion sensor correlated well in the total sample (TS; p = .705), as well as in the subsamples with cognitive impairment (CI; p = .585) and without CI (p = .787). Excellent feasibility with an acceptance rate of 100%, test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from .973 (TS) to .975 (CI) to .966 (no CI), and sensitivity to change (effect sizes: 0.35–1.47) were found in both subsamples.

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Michael Wilkinson, Damon Leedale-Brown and Edward M. Winter


This study examined the validity of a squash-specific test designed to assess endurance capability and aerobic power.


Eight squash players and eight runners performed, in a counterbalanced order, incremental treadmill (TT) and squash-specific (ST) tests to volitional exhaustion. Breath-by-breath oxygen uptake was determined by a portable analyzer and heart rate was assessed telemetrically. Time to exhaustion was recorded.


Independent t tests revealed longer time to exhaustion for squash players on the ST than runners (775 ± 103 vs. 607 ± 81 s; P = .003) but no difference between squash players and runners in maximal oxygen uptake ( Vo2max) or maximum heart rate (HRmax). Runners exercised longer on the TT (521 ± 135 vs. 343 ± 115 s; P = .01) and achieved higher Vo2max than squash players (58.6 ± 7.5 vs. 49.6 ± 7.3 mL·kg−1·min−1; P = .03), with no group difference in HRmax. Paired t tests showed squash players achieved higher Vo2max on the ST than the TT (52.2 ± 7.1 vs. 49.6 ± 7.3 mL·kg−1·min−1; P = .02). The Vo2max and HRmax of runners did not differ between tests, nor did the HRmax of squash players. ST and TT Vo2max correlated highly in squash players and runners (r = .94, P < .001; r = .88, P = .003).


The ST discriminated endurance performance between squash players and runners and elicited higher Vo2max in squash players than a nonspecifc test. The results suggest that the ST is a valid assessment of Vo2max and endurance capability in squash players.

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Matti Hyvärinen, Sarianna Sipilä, Janne Kulmala, Harto Hakonen, Tuija H. Tammelin, Urho M. Kujala, Vuokko Kovanen and Eija K. Laakkonen

in epidemiologic studies due to their relatively low cost and ease of implementation regardless of their limited reliability and validity due to the potential response bias and issues related to recalling the physical activity ( Kowalski, Rhodes, Naylor, Tuokko, & MacDonald, 2012 ; Shephard, 2003

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Carlos Augusto Kalva-Filho, Argyris Toubekis, Alessandro Moura Zagatto, Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva, João Paulo Loures, Eduardo Zapaterra Campos and Marcelo Papoti

minimum test and, consequently, its comparisons with other aerobic parameters (eg, critical velocity) ( 17 ). Although the lactate minimum test has been widely applied in free-swimming ( 5 , 14 , 17 , 26 ), at present, only one study has tested the validity of this procedure in tethered swimming

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Justin W.Y. Lee, Ming-Jing Cai, Patrick S.H. Yung and Kai-Ming Chan

user-friendly, the measurement largely depends on the skills and strength of the operator. 10 , 14 Especially for the hamstring strength endurance measurement, the operator will also fatigue during the trial. 5 For others on-field hamstring strength testing methods, the concurrent validity are yet to

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Kieran J. Marston, Belinda M. Brown, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Sabine Bird, Linda K. Wijaya, Shaun Y. M. Teo, Ralph N. Martins and Jeremiah J. Peiffer

–40 continuous min; Jakicic, Winters, Lang, & Wing, 1999 ). It is, therefore, important to explore the acute response in BDNF, IGF-1, and VEGF using a high-intensity, yet, ecologically valid, resistance exercise regimen in older adults. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the acute response in BDNF

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Franco M. Impellizzeri and Samuele M. Marcora

We propose that physiological and performance tests used in sport science research and professional practice should be developed following a rigorous validation process, as is done in other scientific fields, such as clinimetrics, an area of research that focuses on the quality of clinical measurement and uses methods derived from psychometrics. In this commentary, we briefly review some of the attributes that must be explored when validating a test: the conceptual model, validity, reliability, and responsiveness. Examples from the sport science literature are provided.

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Rheanna Bulten, Sara King-Dowling and John Cairney

an especially relevant component of fitness in childhood, with evidence that it is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease risk in childhood independent of cardiorespiratory fitness levels ( 21 ). Despite a growing body of work on MF in children, there remains a lack of valid and reliable

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Marieke J.G. van Heuvelen, Gertrudis I.J.M. Kempen, Johan Ormel and Mathieu H.G. de Greef

To evaluate the validity of self-report measures of physical fitness as substitutes for performance-based tests, self-reports and performance-based tests of physical fitness were compared. Subjects were a community-based sample of older adults (N = 624) aged 57 and over. The performance-based tests included endurance, flexibility, strength, balance, manual dexterity, and reaction time. The self-report evaluation assessed selected individual subcomponents of fitness and used both peers and absolute standards as reference. The results showed that compared to performance-based tests, the self-report items were more strongly interrelated and they less effectively evaluated the different subdomains of physical fitness. Corresponding performance-based tests and self-report items were weakly to moderately associated. All self-report items were related most strongly with the performance-based endurance test. Apparently. older people tend to estimate overall fitness, in which endurance plays an important part, rather than individual subcomponents of Illness. Therefore, the self-report measures have limited validity as predictors of performance-based physical fitness.

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Akitomo Yasunaga, Hyuntae Park, Eiji Watanabe, Fumiharu Togo, Sungjin Park, Roy J. Shephard and Yukitoshi Aoyagi

The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Elderly Japanese (PAQ-EJ) is a self-administered physical activity questionnaire for elderly Japanese; the authors report here on its repeatability and direct and indirect validity. Reliability was assessed by repeat administration after 1 month. Direct validation was based on accelerometer data collected every 4 s for 1 month in 147 individuals age 65–85 years. Indirect validation against a 10-item Barthel index (activities of daily living [ADL]) was completed in 3,084 individuals age 65–99 years. The test–retest coefficient was high (r = .64–.71). Total and subtotal scores for lower (transportation, housework, and labor) and higher intensity activities (exercise/sports) were significantly correlated with step counts and durations of physical activity <3 and ≥3 METs (r = .41, .28, .53), respectively. Controlling for age and ADL, scores for transportation, exercise/sports, and labor were greater in men, but women performed more housework. Sex- and ADL- or age-adjusted PAQ-EJ scores were significantly lower in older and dependent people. PAQ-EJ repeatability and validity seem comparable to those of instruments used in Western epidemiological studies.