were performed, with the best performance recorded for further analyses. Finally, participants completed the CMJ test on a portable force platform (Kistler Type 9260AA; Kistler Instruments Ltd). Participants stood with both hands on their hips to isolate the lower-limb action and performed a vertical
Borja Muniz-Pardos, Alejandro Gómez-Bruton, Ángel Matute-Llorente, Alex González-Agüero, Alba Gómez-Cabello, José A. Casajús and Germán Vicente-Rodríguez
Sean J. Maloney, Anthony N. Turner and Stuart Miller
It has previously been shown that a loaded warm-up may improve power performances. We examined the acute effects of loaded dynamic warm-up on change of direction speed (CODS), which had not been previously investigated. Eight elite badminton players participated in three sessions during which they performed vertical countermovement jump and CODS tests before and after undertaking the dynamic warm-up. The three warm-up conditions involved wearing a weighted vest (a) equivalent to 5% body mass, (b) equivalent to 10% body mass, and (c) a control where a weighted vest was not worn. Vertical jump and CODS performances were then tested at 15 seconds and 2, 4, and 6 minutes post warm-up. Vertical jump and CODS significantly improved following all warm-up conditions (P < .05). Post warm-up vertical jump performance was not different between conditions (P = .430). Post warm-up CODS was significantly faster following the 5% (P = .02) and 10% (P < .001) loaded conditions compared with the control condition. In addition, peak CODS test performances, independent of recovery time, were faster than the control condition following the 10% loaded condition (P = .012). In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that a loaded warm-up augmented CODS, but not vertical jump performance, in elite badminton players.
Andrew G Jameson, Stephen J Kinzey and Jeffrey S Hallam
Cryotherapy is commonly used in the care of acute and chronic injuries. It decreases pain, reduces swelling, and causes vasoconstriction of blood vessels. Its detrimental effects on motor activity might predispose physically active individuals to further injury.
To examine the effects of cryotherapy on vertical-ground-reaction-force (VGRF) during a 2-legged landing from a 2-legged targeted vertical jump.
2 × 4 MANOVA with repeated measures.
10 men, means: 22.40 ± 1.26 years, 76.01 ± 26.95 kg, 182.88 ± 6.88 cm.
VGRF during landing from a targeted vertical jump (90% of maximum) was measured before and after four 20-minute cryotherapy treatments.
There were no significant differences in VGRF as a result of cryotherapy.
Under the constraints of this study there is no evidence that returning to activity immediately after cryotherapy predisposes an athlete to injury because of a change in VGRF.
Andrew S. Cole, Megan E. Woodruff, Mary P. Horn and Anthony D. Mahon
Relationships between physiological parameters and 5-km running performance were examined in 15 male runners (17.3 ± 0.9 years). Running economy (RE) and blood lactate concentration ([BLa]) at 241.2 m/min, VO2max, velocity at VO2max (vVO2max), vertical jump height and muscle power, and isokinetic knee extension strength at 60°/sec and 240°/sec were measured. The participants’ best 5-km race time over the last month of the cross-country season (16.98 ± 0.76 min) was used in the analysis. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficients. Significant relationships to run time were observed for VO2max (r = -.53), RE (r = .55), and vVO2max (r = -.66), but not [BLa], isokinetic muscle torque, or vertical jump. Identifying the unique strength and power characteristics related to running performance in this age group is warranted.
Maurice Mohr, Matthieu B. Trudeau, Sandro R. Nigg and Benno M. Nigg
To determine the effect of shoe mass on performance in basketball-specific movements and how this affects changes if an athlete is aware or not of the shoe’s mass relative to other shoes.
In an experimental design, 22 male participants were assigned to 2 groups. In the “aware” group, differences in the mass of the shoes were disclosed, while participants in the other group were blinded to the mass of shoes. For both groups lateral shuffle-cut and vertical-jump performances were quantified in 3 different basketball-shoe conditions (light, 352 ± 18.4 g; medium, 510 ± 17 g; heavy, 637 ± 17.7 g). A mixed ANOVA compared mean shuffle-cut and vertical-jump performances across shoes and groups. For blinded participants, perceived shoeweight ratings were collected and compared across shoe conditions using a Friedman 2-way ANOVA.
In the aware group, performance in the light shoes was significantly increased by 2% (vertical jump 2%, P < .001; shuffle cut 2.1%, P < .001) compared with the heavy shoes. In the blind group, participants were unable to perceive the shoe-weight variation between conditions, and there were no significant differences in vertical-jump and shuffle-cut performance across shoes.
Differences in performance of the aware participants were most likely due to psychological effects such as positive and negative expectancies toward the light and heavy shoes, respectively. These results underline the importance for coaches and shoe manufacturers to communicate the performance-enhancing benefits of products or other interventions to athletes to optimize their performance outcome.
Luke W. Hogarth, Brendan J. Burkett and Mark R. McKean
To examine the neuromuscular and perceptual fatigue responses to consecutive tag football matches played on the same day and determine the relationship between fatigue and match running performance.
Neuromuscular and perceptual fatigue responses of 15 national tag football players were assessed before and during the 2014 State of Origin tournament. Global positioning systems (GPS) provided data on players’ match running performance, and a vertical-jump test and subjective questionnaire were used to assess players’ neuromuscular and perceptual fatigue, respectively.
There were small to moderate reductions in the majority of match-running-performance variables over consecutive matches, including distance (ES = −0.81), high-speed-running (HSR) distance (ES = −0.51), HSR efforts (ES = −0.64), and maximal accelerations (ES = −0.76). Prematch vertical jump was initially below baseline values before the first match (ES = 0.68−0.88). There were no substantial reductions in vertical-jump performance from baseline values over consecutive matches, although there was a small decline from after match 2 to after match 3 (3.3%; ES = −0.45 ± 0.62). There were progressive reductions in perceived well-being scores after matches 1 (ES = −0.38), 2 (ES = −0.70), and 3 (ES = −1.14). There were small to moderate associations between changes in fatigue measures and match running performance.
Perceptual fatigue accumulates over consecutive tag football matches, although there were only marginal increases in neuromuscular fatigue. However, both neuromuscular and perceptual fatigue measures were found to contribute to reduced match running performance in the final match.
Trent M. Guess, Swithin Razu, Amirhossein Jahandar, Marjorie Skubic and Zhiyu Huo
The Microsoft Kinect is becoming a widely used tool for inexpensive, portable measurement of human motion, with the potential to support clinical assessments of performance and function. In this study, the relative osteokinematic Cardan joint angles of the hip and knee were calculated using the Kinect 2.0 skeletal tracker. The pelvis segments of the default skeletal model were reoriented and 3-dimensional joint angles were compared with a marker-based system during a drop vertical jump and a hip abduction motion. Good agreement between the Kinect and marker-based system were found for knee (correlation coefficient = 0.96, cycle RMS error = 11°, peak flexion difference = 3°) and hip (correlation coefficient = 0.97, cycle RMS = 12°, peak flexion difference = 12°) flexion during the landing phase of the drop vertical jump and for hip abduction/adduction (correlation coefficient = 0.99, cycle RMS error = 7°, peak flexion difference = 8°) during isolated hip motion. Nonsagittal hip and knee angles did not correlate well for the drop vertical jump. When limited to activities in the optimal capture volume and with simple modifications to the skeletal model, the Kinect 2.0 skeletal tracker can provide limited 3-dimensional kinematic information of the lower limbs that may be useful for functional movement assessment.
Georgia D. Tsiotra, Alan M. Nevill, Andrew M. Lane and Yiannis Koutedakis
We investigated whether children with suspected Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD+) demonstrate different physical fitness levels compared with their normal peers (DCD−). Randomly recruited Greek children (n = 177) were assessed for body mass index (BMI), flexibility (SR), vertical jump (VJ), hand strength (HS), 40m dash, aerobic power, and motor proficiency. ANCOVA revealed a motor proficiency (i.e., DCD group) effect for BMI (p < .01), VJ (p < .01), and 40m speed (p < .01), with DCD+ children demonstrating lower values than DCD−. Differences between DCD+ and DCD− were also obtained in log-transformed HS (p < .01). These findings suggest that intervention strategies for managing DCD should also aim at physical fitness increases.
Rossana C. Nogueira, Benjamin K. Weeks and Belinda R. Beck
Our goal was to test the effect of a brief, novel bone- and fat-targeted exercise program on bone, muscle, and fat in healthy pre and peripubertal boys. We conducted a 10-min, 3/wk capoeira and jumping exercise intervention for 9 months with year 5 and 6 school boys. Anthropometrics, maturity, heart rate, blood pressure, maximal vertical jump, aerobic capacity and calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation and stiffness index (BUA and SI; Achilles, GE) were assessed. Bone, lean and fat tissue (DXA; XR800, Norland), and parameters of bone geometry (pQCT, XCT3000, Stratec) were measured from a subsample of 36 boys. Of 188 boys (10.6 ± 0.5 yr) who consented, 172 completed all testing; 104 exercisers (EX) and 68 controls (CON). 30 EX and 6 CON participants underwent DXA and pQCT measures. EX improved BUA (+4.3% vs. +2.1%, p = .035), waist circumference (+2.8% vs. +6.2%, p = .001), heart rate (-5.3% vs. +1.5%, p = .005), maximal vertical jump (+12.2% vs. −0.3%, p = .001) and estimated maximal oxygen consumption (+9.1% vs. +1.2%, p = .001) compared with CON. Three 10-min sessions of capoeira and jumping per week improved calcaneal bone and metabolic health of pre and peripubertal boys over the course of a school year with little disruption to the academic schedule.
Rachel A. Hildebrand, Bridget Miller, Aric Warren, Deana Hildebrand and Brenda J. Smith
Increasing evidence indicates that compromised vitamin D status, as indicated by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D), is associated with decreased muscle function. The purpose of this study was to determine the vitamin D status of collegiate athletes residing in the southern U.S. and its effects on muscular strength and anaerobic power. Collegiate athletes (n = 103) from three separate NCAA athletic programs were recruited for the study. Anthropometrics, vitamin D and calcium intake, and sun exposure data were collected along with serum 25-OH D and physical performance measures (Vertical Jump Test, Shuttle Run Test, Triple Hop for Distance Test and the 1 Repetition Maximum Squat Test) to determine the influence of vitamin D status on muscular strength and anaerobic power. Approximately 68% of the study participants were vitamin D adequate (>75 nmol/L), whereas 23% were insufficient (75–50 nmol/L) and 9%, predominantly non-Caucasian athletes, were deficient (<50 nmol/L). Athletes who had lower vitamin D status had reduced performance scores (p < .01) with odds ratios of 0.85 on the Vertical Jump Test, 0.82 on the Shuttle Run Test, 0.28 on the Triple Hop for Distance Test, and 0.23 on the 1 RM Squat Test. These findings demonstrate that even NCAA athletes living in the southern US are at risk for vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and that maintaining adequate vitamin D status may be important for these athletes to optimize their muscular strength and power.