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Jorge E. Morais, António J. Silva, Daniel A. Marinho, Vítor P. Lopes and Tiago M. Barbosa

Purpose:

To develop a performance predictor model based on swimmers’ biomechanical profile, relate the partial contribution of the main predictors with the training program, and analyze the time effect, sex effect, and time × sex interaction.

Methods:

91 swimmers (44 boys, 12.04 ± 0.81 y; 47 girls, 11.22 ± 0.98 y) evaluated during a 3-y period. The decimal age and anthropometric, kinematic, and efficiency features were collected 10 different times over 3 seasons (ie, longitudinal research). Hierarchical linear modeling was the procedure used to estimate the performance predictors.

Results:

Performance improved between season 1 early and season 3 late for both sexes (boys 26.9% [20.88;32.96], girls 16.1% [10.34;22.54]). Decimal age (estimate [EST] –2.05, P < .001), arm span (EST –0.59, P < .001), stroke length (EST 3.82; P = .002), and propelling efficiency (EST –0.17, P = .001) were entered in the final model.

Conclusion:

Over 3 consecutive seasons young swimmers’ performance improved. Performance is a multifactorial phenomenon where anthropometrics, kinematics, and efficiency were the main determinants. The change of these factors over time was coupled with the training plans of this talent identification and development program.

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Stef Feijen, Angela Tate, Kevin Kuppens, Thomas Struyf, Anke Claes and Filip Struyf

the within-session reliability in swimmers aged 10–20 years with no short-term history of injury. Therefore, findings of this study may not be generalized to people outside this population or age group. This study investigated the within-session reliability of shoulder flexion ROM in young competitive

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Jan Rintala and Susan Birrell

The availability of female role models is examined through a content analysis of Young Athlete magazine. Two research questions are posed: Do males and females receive differential treatment in Young Athlete? Does the representation of males and females in Young Athlete reflect actual participation rates? Young Athlete depicts sport as a male activity. For example, less than one-third of all photographs depict females, and the percentage decreases with the prominence of the photograph. Compared to actual participation rates, Young Athlete subtly distorts girls’ involvement. Girls are markedly under-represented in team sports, even those they dominate numerically. Discussion focuses upon the issue of fair treatment. The conclusion that statistical representation is a safe but narrow definition of fair treatment is explored with reference to current theoretical perspectives on media.

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Maria Heikkilä, Raisa Valve, Mikko Lehtovirta and Mikael Fogelholm

The benefits of training, rest, and proper nutrition in athletic performance are unquestionable. In the case of young athletes, the important role of nutrition in growth and development should also be considered ( Cotugna et al., 2005 ). To understand the importance of daily food choices and

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Jason Moran, Gavin R.H. Sandercock, Rodrigo Ramírez-Campillo, Oliver Todd, Jay Collison and Dave A. Parry

Purpose:

The purpose of this intervention study was to investigate if a low-dose of plyometric training (PT) could improve sprint and jump performance in groups of different maturity status.

Method:

Male youth field hockey players were divided into Pre-PHV (from -1 to -1.9 from PHV; Experimental: n = 9; Control = 12) and Mid-PHV (0 to +0.9 from PHV; Experimental: n = 8; Control = 9) groups. Participants in the experimental groups completed 60 foot contacts, twice-weekly for 6 weeks.

Results:

PT exerted a positive effect (effect size: 0.4 [-0.4–1.2]) on 10 m sprint time in the experimental Mid-PHV group but this was less pronounced in the Pre-PHV group (0.1 [-0.6–0.9]). Sprint time over 30 m (Mid-PHV: 0.1 [-0.8–0.9]; Pre-PHV: 0.1 [-0.7–0.9]) and CMJ (Mid-PHV: 0.1 [-0.8–0.9]; Pre-PHV: 0.0 [-0.7–0.8]) was maintained across both experimental groups. Conversely, the control groups showed decreased performance in most tests at follow up. Between-group analysis showed positive effect sizes across all performance tests in the Mid-PHV group, contrasting with all negative effect sizes in the Pre-PHV group.

Conclusion:

These results indicate that more mature hockey players may benefit to a greater extent than less mature hockey players from a low-dose PT stimulus. Sixty foot contacts, twice per week, seems effective in improving short sprint performance in Mid-PHV hockey players.

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Chelsea L. Kracht, Elizabeth K. Webster and Amanda E. Staiano

study evaluating household income effects on young children’s PA. 35 Children in this study acquired most of their screen time from TV and tablet, similar to another study that estimated preschoolers spend over 2 hours a day engaged with screens. 36 However, a smaller number of children in this study

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Serge Brand, Markus Gerber, Flora Colledge, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Uwe Pühse and Sebastian Ludyga

matching), respectively. The male and female faces of young adults that were used as visual stimuli were obtained from the face database of the Max Planck Institute ( Troje & Bulthoff, 1996 ). The five basic emotions expressed by these faces were happiness, sadness, anger, disgust, and fear. Following a

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Tiago M. Barbosa, Mário Costa, Daniel A. Marinho, Joel Coelho, Marc Moreira and António J. Silva

The aim was to develop a path-flow analysis model for young swimmers’ performance based on biomechanical and energetic parameters, using structural equation modeling. Thirty-eight male young swimmers served as subjects. Performance was assessed by the 200-m freestyle event. For biomechanical assessment the stroke length, the stroke frequency and the swimming velocity were analyzed. Energetics assessment included the critical velocity, the stroke index and the propulsive efficiency. The confirmatory model explained 79% of swimming performance after deleting the stroke index-performance path, which was nonsignificant (SRMR = 0.06). As a conclusion, the model is appropriate to explain performance in young swimmers.

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Gordon R. Chalmers and Kathleen M. Knutzen

The aim of this study was to determine whether elderly and young adults with similar physical activity levels have similar soleus H-wave maximum/M-wave maximum ratios (H-reflex size) and to determine the relationship between H-reflex size and physical activity level. H-reflex size and physical activity levels were measured in 18 elderly (71 ± 5.7 years) and 20 young (24 ± 4.2) participants. The physical activity levels of the 2 groups were not significantly different. The elderly group had smaller H-rellexes than the young group (elderly. 36% ± 27%; young, 59% ± 17%; p < .05), but the effect of age on H-reflex size was only moderate (omega squared = .19, effect size = .30). There was a weak tendency for higher levels of physical activity to be associated with larger H reflexes (r = .38, p < .05). The findings indicate that soleus H-reflex size is not strongly associated with age or physical activity level.

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Kristoffer Henriksen, Carsten Hvid Larsen, Louise Kamuk Storm and Knud Ryom

Young competitive athletes are not miniature elite athletes; they are a distinct client group to whom sport psychology practitioners (SPPs) increasingly deliver services. Interventions with this client group are often undertaken by newly educated SPPs who are in need of good guiding principles. Yet, there is a lack of research informing SPPs’ work with this group. In this current study, semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with four experienced practitioners about their most successful interventions in competitive youth sport. Analysis showed three major themes: (a) young athletes should be equipped with a holistic skills package that enables them to handle a number of existential challenges; (b) young athletes are embedded in an environment (coaches, experts, teammates etc.) that should be involved in the interventions; and (c) interventions with young athletes should maintain a long-term focus. These themes are discussed in the context of current literature on sport psychology service delivery.