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Julia H. Goedecke, Richard Elmer, Steven C. Dennis, Ingrid Schloss, Timothy D. Noakes and Estelle V. Lambert

The effects of ingesting different amounts of medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) and carbohydrate (CHO) on gastric symptoms, fuel metabolism, and exercise performance were measured in 9 endurance-trained cyclists. Participants, 2 hr after a standardized lunch, cycled for 2 hr at 63% of peak oxygen consumption and then performed a simulated 40-km time trial (T trial). During the rides, participants ingested either 10% 14C-glucose (GLU), 10% 14C-GLU + 1.72%MCT(LO-MCT), or 10% l4C-GLU + 3.44%MCT(HI-MCT) solutions: 400 ml at the start of exercise and then 100 ml every lOmin.MCTingestiondid not affect gastrointestinal symptoms. It only raised serum free fatty acid (FFA) and ß-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. Higher FFA and ß-hydroxybutyrate concentrations with MCT ingestion did not affect fuel oxidation or T-trial performance. The high CHO content of the pretrial lunch increased starting plasma insulin levels, which may have promoted CHO oxidation despite elevated circulating FFA concentrations with MCT ingestion.

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James J. Malone, Ric Lovell, Matthew C. Varley and Aaron J. Coutts

Athlete-tracking devices that include global positioning system (GPS) and microelectrical mechanical system (MEMS) components are now commonplace in sport research and practice. These devices provide large amounts of data that are used to inform decision making on athlete training and performance. However, the data obtained from these devices are often provided without clear explanation of how these metrics are obtained. At present, there is no clear consensus regarding how these data should be handled and reported in a sport context. Therefore, the aim of this review was to examine the factors that affect the data produced by these athlete-tracking devices and to provide guidelines for collecting, processing, and reporting of data. Many factors including device sampling rate, positioning and fitting of devices, satellite signal, and data-filtering methods can affect the measures obtained from GPS and MEMS devices. Therefore researchers are encouraged to report device brand/model, sampling frequency, number of satellites, horizontal dilution of precision, and software/firmware versions in any published research. In addition, details of inclusion/exclusion criteria for data obtained from these devices are also recommended. Considerations for the application of speed zones to evaluate the magnitude and distribution of different locomotor activities recorded by GPS are also presented, alongside recommendations for both industry practice and future research directions. Through a standard approach to data collection and procedure reporting, researchers and practitioners will be able to make more confident comparisons from their data, which will improve the understanding and impact these devices can have on athlete performance.

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Geoff P. Lovell, John K. Parker and Gary J. Slater

Research in sports-science disciplines such as sport psychology has demonstrated that practitioners’ physical characteristics influence clients’ perceptions of their effectiveness, potentially mediating the efficacy of subsequent interventions. However, very little research has been directed toward this issue for sports dietitians (SDs), the health professionals whom athletes are likely to engage to assist with manipulation of traits of physique. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine whether SDs’ phenotype, specifically body-mass index (BMI), and type of dress influence potential clients’ preference to consult them for dietetic support and if this affects their perceived effectiveness.

Methods:

One hundred volunteers (mean age 18.7 ± 0 .8 years) all participating in regular competitive sport, classified by gender (male, n = 55, or female, n = 45) and competitive standard (elite/subelite, n = 68, or club/recreational, n = 32) viewed slides representing four concurrently presented computer-generated images of the same female SD manipulated to represent different BMIs and dress types. Participants were asked to rank the SDs in order of their preference to work with them and, second, to rate their perceived effectiveness of each of the SDs.

Results:

Key findings included the observation of a significant BMI main effect F(6, 91) = 387.39, p < .001 (effect size .96), with participants’ ranking of preference and rating of perceived effectiveness of female SDs decreasing with increasing BMI.

Conclusion:

SDs should consider their physical appearance when meeting with athletes, as this may affect their perceived efficacy.

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Katriona J.M O’Donoghue, Paul A. Fournier and Kym J. Guelfi

Although the manipulation of exercise and dietary intake to achieve successful weight loss has been extensively studied, it is unclear how the time of day that exercise is performed may affect subsequent energy intake. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of an acute bout of exercise performed in the morning compared with an equivalent bout of exercise performed in the afternoon on short-term energy intake. Nine healthy male participants completed 3 trials: morning exercise (AM), afternoon exercise (PM), or control (no exercise; CON) in a randomized counterbalanced design. Exercise consisted of 45 min of treadmill running at 75% VO2peak. Energy intake was assessed over a 26-hr period with the participants eating ad libitum from a standard assortment of food items of known quantity and composition. There was no significant difference in overall energy intake (M ± SD; CON 23,505 ± 6,938 kJ, AM 24,957 ± 5,607 kJ, PM 24,560 ± 5,988 kJ; p = .590) or macronutrient preferences during the 26-hr period examined between trials. Likewise, no differences in energy intake or macronutrient preferences were observed at any of the specific individual meal periods examined (i.e., breakfast, lunch, dinner) between trials. These results suggest that the time of day that exercise is performed does not significantly affect short-term energy intake in healthy men.

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Joshua Lowndes, Robert F. Zoeller, George A. Kyriazis, Mary P. Miles, Richard L. Seip, Niall M. Moyna, Paul S. Visich, Linda S. Pescatello, Paul M. Gordon, Paul D. Thompson and Theodore J. Angelopoulos

The purpose of this study was to examine whether leptin levels affect the response of leptin to exercise training (ET) and whether this is also affected by C-reactive protein (CRP) or the three common Apolipoprotein E genotypes (APOE). Ninety-seven (male = 45, female = 52) sedentary individuals underwent 6 months of supervised ET. Blood was sampled before the initiation of ET, and again 24 and 72 hr after completion of the final training session. ET resulted in a small reduction in body mass (80.47 ± 18.03 vs 79.42 ± 17.34 kg, p < .01). Leptin was reduced 24 hr after the final exercise session (p < .01), but returned to normal after 72 hr (p > .05)—Pre: 13.51 ± 12.27, 24hr: 12.14 ± 12.34, 72hr: 12.98 ± 11.40 ng/ml. The most hyperleptinemic individuals had a greater initial response, which was sustained through to 72 hr after the final session in the pooled study population (p < .01), and in both males (p < .05) and females (p < .05) separately. CRP was related to leptin independently of body weight and positively related to the reductions in leptin. APOE genotype was not related to leptin levels and did not affect the response to ET. Leptin levels may only be reduced by ET in those with hyperleptinemia. In addition, both the initial extent of hyperleptinemia and the subsequent reduction in leptin may be related to low grade chronic systemic inflammation.

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Jeffrey J. Zachwieja, David L. Costill, Jeffrey J. Widrick, Dawn E. Anderson and Glenn K. McConell

The intent of this study was to determine whether adding carbonation to either water or a low calorie sport drink would affect gastric emptying (GE). Fifteen subjects rode for 20 minutes on a cycle ergometer at 55% of max VO2. After 5 minutes of exercise, the subjects ingested 5.5 mllkg body weight of a test solution: water (W), carbonated water (CW), and a low calorie sport drink in both a carbonated (C2C) and noncarbonated (2C) form. At the end of each ride, the stomach was emptied through gastric aspiration. The results indicate that carbonation has no effect on GE. However, the type of drink did have an effect on GE, as both 2C and C2C emptied from the stomach at a slower rate than either W or CW. Subjective ratings of gastrointestinal comfort were similar for both carbonated and noncarbonated forms, and at no time did the subjects report discomfort. The results were independent of the exercise challenge, as exercise intensity, heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion did not differ between experimental trials. It is concluded that carbonation does not affect the GE characteristics of a drink taken during submaximal exercise, but the flavoring system of the low calorie beverage decreased the rate of GE by as much as 25% when compared to water.

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Andrew Miller

The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the weight of scientific evidence regarding student outcomes (physical, cognitive and affective) of a Game Centered Approach (GCA) when the quality of a study was taken into account in the interpretation of collective findings. A systematic search of five electronic databases (Sports Discuss, ERIC, A+ Education, PsychInfo and PROQUEST Education) was conducted from their year of inception to 30 January 2014. Included studies were longitudinal or experimental/quasi-experimental studies involving children or adolescents that quantitatively assessed (using repeat measures and/or comparison with a control group) the effects upon student outcomes when an intervention involved the use of a GCA. The search identified 15 articles examining the effects of GCA on student outcomes that met the criteria for inclusion. The weight of evidence provided by the included studies identified an association between a GCA and the outcomes of declarative knowledge, support during game play and affective outcomes of perceived competence, interest/enjoyment and effort/importance. Development of technical skill, procedural knowledge and game play skills of decision making and skill execution are not supported by the level of evidence currently provided. Intervention volume appears to have a large effect on the development of game based decision making and skill execution, with a positive association between these outcomes and use of GCA interventions greater than eight hours in volume. More longitudinal and intervention research examining the use of a GCA and potential psychological, physiological and behavioral outcomes in children and adolescents is recommended.

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Koichi Nakazato, Tatsuro Hirose and Hongsun Song

More than 15% dietary protein has reportedly not led to significant muscle hypertrophy in normal growing rats. The aim of this study was to test whether a high protein (HP) diet affects myostatin (Mstn) synthesis in a rat gastrocnemius muscle. Twenty-four male Wistar rats (4-wk-old) were divided into three groups: 1) control diet (15% protein; 15P, n = 8), 2) the 25P group (25% protein, n = 8), and 3) the 35P group (35% protein, n = 8). After 3 wk of isoenergetic feedings, the Mstn level in skeletal muscles was determined using Northern and Western blotting analysis. After the experimental feeding, muscle masses were similar among groups. The 35P showed significant high expressions of Mstn both at mRNA and protein levels. Obtained results suggest that a high-protein diet leads to the high Mstn level to restrict muscle hypertrophy.

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Jason T. Penry and Melinda M. Manore

Choline plays a central role in many physiological pathways, including neurotransmitter synthesis (acetylcholine), cell-membrane signaling (phospholipids), lipid transport (lipoproteins), and methyl-group metabolism (homocysteine reduction). Endurance exercise might stress several of these pathways, increasing the demand for choline as a metabolic substrate. This review examines the current literature linking endurance exercise and choline demand in the human body. Also reviewed are the mechanisms by which exercise might affect blood choline levels, and the links between methyl metabolism and the availability of free choline are highlighted. Finally, the ability of oral choline supplements to augment endurance performance is assessed. Most individuals consume adequate amounts of choline, although there is evidence that current recommendations might be insufficient for some adult men. Only strenuous and prolonged physical activity appears sufficient to significantly decrease circulating choline stores. Moreover, oral choline supplementation might only increase endurance performance in activities that reduce circulating choline levels below normal.

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Richard J. Bloomer, Andrew Fry, Brian Schilling, Loren Chiu, Naruhiro Hori and Lawrence Weiss

This investigation was designed to determine the effects of astaxanthin on markers of skeletal muscle injury. Twenty resistance trained men (mean ± standard error of the mean: age, 25.1 ± 1.6 y; height, 1.79 ± 0.02 m; weight, 86.8 ± 4.4 kg) were assigned to either a placebo (1732 mg safflower oil, n = 10) or astaxanthin (BioAstin; 1732 mg safflower oil; haematococcus algae extract [contains 4 mg astaxanthin and 480 mg lutein], n = 10). Subjects consumed their assigned treatment for 3 wk prior to eccentric exercise (10 sets of 10 repetitions at 85% of one repetition maximum) and through 96 h post-exercise. Muscle soreness, creatine kinase (CK), and muscle performance was measured before and through 96 h post-exercise. A similar response was observed for both treatment groups for all dependent variables, indicating that in resistance trained men, astaxanthin supplementation does not favorably affect indirect markers of skeletal muscle injury following eccentric loading.