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Se-yeon Park and Won-gyu Yoo

Objective:

The purpose of this study was to measure muscle activation during ascending and descending phases of the push-up exercise on both stable and unstable support surfaces.

Participants:

Fourteen asymptomatic male amateur badminton players. During push-up exercises on stable and unstable bases, muscle activation measurements were collected with phase divisions (ascending and descending phase).

Methods:

Electromyography (EMG) was utilized to measure activation of the upper trapezius (UT) and lower trapezius (LT), middle serratus anterior (MSA) and lower serratus anterior (LSA), pectoralis major (PM), and triceps brachii (TB) muscles.

Results:

An unstable support surface produced significantly greater activation of the UT, LT, LSA, and PM muscles than a stable support surface (p < 0.05). The MSA, LSA, TB, and PM muscles demonstrated greater activation during the ascending phase than the descending phase of the push-up exercise (p < 0.05).

Conclusions:

The unstable support surface appeared to produce relatively greater activation of the LSA than that of the MSA. The descending phase of the push-up did not demonstrate a higher level of activation for any of the muscles tested.

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Christie Tangalos, Samuel J. Robertson, Michael Spittle and Paul B. Gastin

Context:

Player match statistics in junior Australian football (AF) are not well documented, and contributors to success are poorly understood. A clearer understanding of the relationships between fitness and skill in younger players participating at the foundation level of the performance pathway in AF has implications for the development of coaching priorities (eg, physical or technical).

Purpose:

To investigate the relationships between indices of fitness (speed, power, and endurance) and skill (coach rating) on player performance (disposals and effective disposals) in junior AF.

Methods:

Junior male AF players (N = 156, 10–15 y old) were recruited from 12 teams of a single amateur recreational AF club located in metropolitan Victoria. All players were tested for fitness (20-m sprint, vertical jump, 20-m shuttle run) and rated by their coach on a 6-point Likert scale for skill (within a team in comparison with their teammates). Player performance was assessed during a single match in which disposals and their effectiveness were coded from a video recording.

Results:

Coach rating of skill displayed the strongest correlations and, combined with 20-m shuttle test, showed a good ability to predict the number of both disposals and effective disposals. None of the skill or fitness attributes adequately explained the percentage of effective disposals. The influence of team did not meaningfully contribute to the performance of any of the models.

Conclusions:

Skill development should be considered a high priority by coaches in junior AF.

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John J. Nicholas, Margaret Reidy and Denise M. Oleske

In order to supplement the literature that describes individual injuries of the shoulder, carpal tunnel, and back in golfers, we administered a survey to demonstrate the incidence of golfers' injuries and describe the most frequent types. A questionnaire was administered to 1,790 members of the New York State Golf Association (amateur) under age 21. Three hundred sixty-eight players responded. Half of those responding had been struck by a golf ball at least on one occasion (47.6%), and 23% of the injuries were to the head or neck. Male golfers were 2.66 times more likely to be struck by a golf ball than females. Women and golfers with a higher handicap were at an increased risk for upper extremity problems, whereas younger and overweight golfers were more likely to have golf-related back problems. We concluded that golf is associated with a significant morbidity. Repetitious trunk and upper limb motions probably contribute to musculoskeletal disorders. However, an unexpectedly high incidence of trauma from projectile golf balls leads to the conclusion that no amount of stretching or muscular exercise is as important as increased alertness by golfers to decrease this hazard.

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Antoni Sureda, Miguel D. Ferrer, Antonia Mestre, Josep A. Tur and Antoni Pons

The authors studied the effects of antioxidant diet supplementation with an almond-based beverage on neutrophil antioxidants, nitrite, and protein oxidative alterations after exercise. Fourteen trained male amateur runners were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to receive antioxidant supplementation (152 mg/d vitamin C and 50 mg/d vitamin E) or placebo using an almond-based beverage for 1 mo and participated in a half-marathon race. Blood samples were taken before and after the half-marathon and after 3 hr recovery. Supplementation significantly increased basal neutrophil vitamin C compared with placebo (p < .05). Exercise increased neutrophil vitamin E levels in the supplemented group and decreased vitamin C in both groups after recovery (p < .05). Neutrophil catalase and glutathione peroxidase gene expression and nitrite levels were significantly increased as result of exercise (p < .05). Nitrotyrosine and protein carbonyl derivates increased only in the placebo group after exercise (p < .05), and these values remained high at recovery. No significant differences were evidenced in caspase-3 activity and DNA damage. Antioxidant supplementation with vitamins C and E reduced the exercise-induced oxidation of proteins in neutrophils, without altering the antioxidant adaptive response, as evidenced by the increased catalase and glutathione peroxidase gene expression.

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Christoph Dehner, Andreas Schmelz, Hans-Ullrich Völker, Jochen Pressmar, Martin Elbel and Michael Kramer

Context:

Chronic low back pain (LBP) has been reported with a high incidence in elite rowers. It results in less effective training, long interruptions in training, and a drop in performance.

Objective:

The authors hypothesized that exercise-induced LBP in rowers is caused by a chronic functional compartment syndrome (CFCS) of the multifidus muscle.

Design:

Controlled clinical trial.

Setting:

The rowers were tested in their training camp. The control group was tested at a university hospital.

Participants:

14 volunteer elite rowers complaining of LBP and 16 healthy volunteer amateur athletes.

Main Outcome Measurements:

Intramuscular pressure (IMP), tissue oxygenation pressure (pO2), and median frequency (MF) shift in the electromyographic power density spectrum during isometric fatiguing extension at 60% of maximum voluntary contraction.

Results:

At the beginning (controls 186.6 mm Hg vs rowers 60.2 mm Hg, P = .002) and the end (controls 224.1 mm HG vs rowers 77.1 mm Hg, P < .001) of the endurance exercise the median IMP was significantly higher in the healthy controls. Nearly identical resting pO2 was measured in both groups (controls 37.6 mm Hg vs rowers 37.3 mm Hg, P = .740). Rowers showed higher median MF shift (rowers −11.5 Hz vs controls −8.5 Hz, P = .079) during contraction.

Conclusions:

These observations cannot sufficiently be explained by the CFCS model and suggest that factors other than IMP have an additional effect on pain generation during exercise in elite rowers.

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Lucie Thibault and Jean Harvey

The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature and extent of interorganizational linkages between the partners involved in Canada's sport delivery system. Given the changes in the economic context of the 1990s and the ensuing fiscal restraints exercised by both government and the private sector, amateur sport organizations are in a period of high uncertainty. In order to deal with this uncertainty, links between organizations like governments, nonprofit sport organizations, and private sector organizations need to be established, fostered, and maintained. Organizations need to collaborate with each other in order to fulfill their objectives. Linkages between organizations will assist in the sharing of resources and in the coordination of work-related activities. In the paper, a number of examples of existing links between governments, nonprofit organizations, and private organizations are presented. Based on resource dependency theory, strategies such as contracts, joint ventures, and co-optation for establishing new interorganizational linkages are discussed. As well, related issues such as power struggles, loss of autonomy, asymmetrical relationships, and conflicting loyalties are addressed and discussed. Questions for future research also are proposed.

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James E. Curtis and Jack S. Birch

A conventional wisdom in the lay sociology of sport journalism is that North American professional ice hockey players are disproportionately recruited from smaller communities and rural areas. One explanation given for this is that avenues for social mobility are more limited in such communities and that sport is heavily pursued as one of the few areas of opportunity. Sections of the sociological literature would suggest, though, that the opposite relationship may occur because larger cities have better opportunity structures for developing and expressing sport skills. These alternative expectations are tested for Canadian-born players in three professional leagues and for players on the last three Olympic teams. In addition, data for U.S. Olympic teams are presented. In interpreting the results, we also employ Canadian national survey data on mass participation of male youths in hockey. The findings show that the largest cities are underrepresented as birthplaces of players at each elite level, whereas small towns are overrepresented. Yet, community size does not appear related to the general population of male youths’ rate of participation in hockey. Emphasized are interpretations concerning how amateur hockey is organized.

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Jeremiah J. Peiffer and Chris R. Abbiss

The use of elliptical chainrings (also called chainwheels or sprockets) has gained considerable interest in the amateur and professional cycling community. Nevertheless, we are unaware of any scientific studies that have examined the performance benefits of using elliptical chainrings during an actual performance trial. Therefore, this study examined the influence of elliptical chainring use on physiological and performance parameters during a 10 km cycling time trial. Nine male cyclists completed, in a counterbalanced order, three 10 km cycling time trials using either a standard chainring or an elliptical chainring at two distinct settings. An attempt was made to blind the cyclists to the type of chainring used until the completion of the study. During the 10 km time trial, power output and heart rate were recorded at a frequency of 1 Hz and RPE was measured at 3, 6, and 8.5 km. Total power output was not different (P = .40) between the circular (340 ± 30 W) or either elliptical chainring condition (342 ± 29 W and 341 ± 31 W). Similarly, no differences (P = .73) in 2 km mean power output were observed between conditions. Further, no differences in RPE were observed between conditions measured at 3, 6, and 8.5 km. Heart rate was significantly greater (P = .02) using the less aggressive elliptical setting (174 ± 10 bpm) compared with the circular setting (171 ± 9 bpm). Elliptical chainrings do not appear to provide a performance benefit over traditional circular chainrings during a mid-distance time trial.

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Gerard Carmona, Emma Roca, Mario Guerrero, Roser Cussó, Alfredo Irurtia, Lexa Nescolarde, Daniel Brotons, Josep L. Bedini and Joan A. Cadefau

Objective:

To investigate changes after a mountain ultramarathon (MUM) in the serum concentration of fast (FM) and slow (SM) myosin isoforms, which are fiber-type-specific sarcomere proteins. The changes were compared against creatine kinase (CK), a widely used fiber-sarcolemma-damage biomarker, and cardiac troponin I (cTnI), a widely used cardiac biomarker.

Methods:

Observational comparison of response in a single group of 8 endurance-trained amateur athletes. Time-related changes in serum levels of CK, cTnI, SM, and FM from competitors were analyzed before, 1 h after the MUM, and 24 and 48 h after the start of the MUM by 1-way ANOVA for repeated measures or Friedman and Wilcoxon tests. Pearson correlation coefficient was employed to examine associations between variables.

Results:

While SM was significantly (P = .009) increased in serum 24 h after the beginning of the MUM, FM and cTnI did not change significantly. Serum CK activity peak was observed 1 h after the MUM (P = .002). Moreover, serum peaks of CK and SM were highly correlated (r = .884, P = .004).

Conclusions:

Since there is evidence of muscle damage after prolonged mountain running, the increase in SM serum concentration after a MUM could be indirect evidence of slow- (type I) fiber-specific sarcomere disruptions.

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David M. Lindsay, John F. Horton and Robert D. Paley

Low back problems account for the largest proportion of injuries among amateur and professional golfers. However, there is little data on how the trunk or spine moves during a golf swing. Also, it may be that different golf clubs produce different trunk motion characteristics. The purpose of this study was to compare trunk range of motion (ROM) and velocity in three movement planes during the execution of a full golf swing using a driver and a 7-iron. Forty-four members of the Alberta Professional Golf Association volunteered to participate in this study. Trunk ROM and velocities in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes were measured using a triaxial electrogoniometer. Results showed that significantly more trunk flexion was required when setting up to hit the ball with the 7-iron compared to the driver, p < 0.05. During the swing, significantly greater maximum flexion and left-side-bend ROM occurred when using the 7-iron, p < 0.05. Maximum right-side-bending velocity during the golf swing was also significantly greater with a 7-iron. These findings suggest that differences in shaft length and ball positioning associated with the different clubs affects swing mechanics and trunk/spinal motion. In particular, the shorter club (7-iron) tended to place more emphasis on lateral trunk motion than did the driver. The results from this study may help clinicians better understand how the golf swing creates stress on the back as well as how club fitting may affect trunk motion characteristics.