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Chun-Hao Wang and Kuo-Cheng Tu

controls might be explained by modulation of the level of arousal; that is, the level of arousal was augmented to perform well in the condition involving higher uncertainty ( Vidal, Bonnet, & Macar, 1995 ). Indeed, frontocentral CNV amplitude has been shown to be higher during more effortful task demands

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Markus Gerber, Simon Best, Fabienne Meerstetter, Sandrine Isoard-Gautheur, Henrik Gustafsson, Renzo Bianchi, Daniel J. Madigan, Flora Colledge, Sebastian Ludyga, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler and Serge Brand

peers with lower burnout symptoms, which is at odds with previously reported findings in adults ( Ekstedt et al., 2006 ). For instance, Ekstedt et al. ( 2006 ) found more arousal and sleep fragmentation, more wake time and stage 1 sleep, lower SE, less slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep, and a

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Iñigo Mujika, Shona Halson, Louise M. Burke, Gloria Balagué and Damian Farrow

• Kinesthetic awareness and control, increased self-efficacy, and emotional management • Use of video, improvements log, and rhythm work • Optimal arousal, effective focus, and cognitive and emotional self-management • Competition routines, attentional focus, and relaxing/energizing cues • Trust, flexibility

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Andrew Hooyman, Alexander Garbin and Beth Fisher

occur at the same time of day for each participant. It is well documented that diurnal changes in an individual’s circadian rhythm has effects on hormone release related to arousal (Cortisol, HPA Axis, circadian rhythm) ( de Weerth, Zijl, & Buitelaar, 2003 ). Therefore, one participant’s brain may be

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Enzo Iuliano, Giovanni Fiorilli, Giovanna Aquino, Alfonso Di Costanzo, Giuseppe Calcagno and Alessandra di Cagno

intensity, were shown also in a previous study of Ruscheweyh et al. ( 2011 ) that reported an improvement of memory performance after 6-month exercise interventions. In contrast, recent research suggested that, after high-intensity exercises, higher levels of arousal are observed, significantly improving

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Mindy Patterson, Wanyi Wang and Alexis Ortiz

body mass is one of the factors related to lower resting metabolic rate in older adults during both arousal and sleeping hours ( Manini, 2010 ; Manini et al., 2006 ; St-Onge & Gallagher, 2010 ). Males have higher lean body mass than females, thus have a higher EE at rest. However, previous studies

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Sunita Potgieter, Hattie H. Wright and Carine Smith

an individualized approach to caffeine supplementation is required. To this end, field studies can contribute to a holistic picture, as the effects of caffeine may be altered when an athlete is removed from the controlled laboratory environment and is highly motivated and aroused in a competition

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Tracy C. Donachie, Andrew P. Hill and Daniel J. Madigan

anxiety is the mental manifestation of anxiety involving worrying about upcoming performances and concerns about possible failure. By contrast, somatic anxiety is the bodily sensations and negative arousal that characterize anxiety such as “butterflies” in the stomach or an elevated heart rate ( Morris

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Ebrahim Norouzi, Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini, Mohammad Vaezmosavi, Markus Gerber, Uwe Pühse and Serge Brand

). Using EEG for enhancing performance: Arousal, attention, self talk, and imagery . In Biofeedback & neurofeedback applications in sport psychology . (pp.  175 – 198 ) Zhu , F. , Poolton , J. , Wilson , M. , Maxwell , J. , & Masters , R. ( 2011 ). Neural co-activation as a yardstick of

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Antje Hill, Linda Schücker, Norbert Hagemann and Bernd Strauß

.1123/jsep.2013-0200 Schwarz , M.A. , Winkler , I. , & Sedlmeier , P. ( 2013 ). The heart beat does not make us tick: The impacts of heart rate and arousal on time perception . Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 75 , 182 – 193 . PubMed doi:10.3758/s13414-012-0387-8 10.3758/s13414