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Aysha M. Thomas, Kayleigh M. Beaudry, Kimbereley L. Gammage, Panagiota Klentrou and Andrea R. Josse

-line skating, skipping, street hockey, skateboarding, tag, and walking for exercise. Team activities included badminton, baseball, basketball, football, ice hockey, rowing, swimming, soccer, and volleyball. Fitness activities included aerobics, dance, martial arts, and yoga. Significant reductions were

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Danielle Peers

, 2011 ; Oliver, 1990 ). Less commonly, APA research is influenced by postmodern paradigmatic assumptions: drawing from disciplines, such as (sport) sociology, philosophy, history, fine arts, as well as feminist, indigenous, postcolonial, and disability studies. Postmodern, and specifically

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Maureen Connolly and William J. Harvey

social sciences, the humanities, the arts, and the natural sciences), or what has been referred to by Kagan ( 2009 ) as cultures, make contributions to APA. We prefer to adapt further the notion of “adapted physical activity” to adaptive physical activity to underscore its organic and responsive

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Dustin A. Hahn, Matthew S. VanDyke and R. Glenn Cummins

explored general motives for viewing sports ( Frandsen, 2008 ; Gantz, 1981 ), differentiating motives between men and women ( Gantz & Wenner, 1991 ), the role of personality traits ( Devlin & Brown-Devlin, 2017 ), and sports-specific viewing motives (e.g., mixed martial arts, Cheever, 2009 ) or platform

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Martin J. Turner, Stuart Carrington and Anthony Miller

), cricket ( n  = 1), tennis ( n  = 2), badminton ( n  = 2), gymnastics ( n  = 10), athletics ( n  = 2), squash ( n  = 2), basketball ( n  = 1), golf ( n  = 1), show jumping ( n  = 1), hockey ( n  = 7), mixed martial arts ( n  = 1), paddle boarding ( n  = 1), karate ( n  = 1), rackets ( n  = 1), rugby ( n

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Sarah Burkart, Jasmin Roberts, Matthew C. Davidson and Sofiya Alhassan

conjunction with their engagement in PA. These are similar skills to those encompassed in a martial arts intervention, 12 and it is possible that controlled movement as well as vigorous movement may have alleviative properties. More research is needed to explore this possibility further. One constraint

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Heidi J. Syväoja, Anna Kankaanpää, Jouni Kallio, Harto Hakonen, Janne Kulmala, Charles H. Hillman, Anu-Katriina Pesonen and Tuija H. Tammelin

or Swedish); first foreign language (begun in grade 3); mathematics; physics; chemistry; biology; geography; history; religion or ethics; visual arts; music; and physical education. The grades refer to numerical assessment on a scale of 4–10, where 4 denotes a failure and 10 denotes excellent

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Vassilios Ziakas and Sylvia Trendafilova

Arts Festival Arts and Crafts Show City parks, recreation facilities, trail facilities Organize youth & recreational tournaments Local agencies and groups Note . RORR = Rocket Open Road Race; GORR = Galaxy Open Road Race; CVB = Convention and Visitors Bureau. Profiling the Bikers After having organized

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Lauren B. Raine, John R. Biggan, Carol L. Baym, Brian J. Saliba, Neal J. Cohen and Charles H. Hillman

English, arts, and mathematics. Fitness changes (increase or decrease) were categorized by levels into “substantial,” “moderate,” and “no change.” Not only did a substantial increase in fitness result in greater improvements in academic performance compared with the group that did not change, but

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Sajad Bagherian, Khodayar Ghasempoor, Nader Rahnama and Erik A. Wikstrom

, volleyball = 12, and martial arts = 8) were defined as students who participated in intercollege sports, were currently in their off-season, and were training at least 3 times per week (>1.5 h/wk). All participants were currently free from any kind of musculoskeletal injury, had not sustained any kind of