The purpose of this study was to (a) describe peer relationship profiles of youth sport participants and (b) assess the motivational salience of these profiles by examining profile group differences on sport motivation-related variables. Youth sport camp participants (N = 243) ages 10 to 14 years (M = 11.8, SD = 1.2) completed a multisection questionnaire that contained sport-contextualized measures of perceived friendship quality (positive, conflict), perceived peer acceptance, perceived competence, enjoyment, anxiety, self-presentational concerns, and self-determined motivation. The positive friendship quality, friendship conflict, and peer acceptance responses were cluster-analyzed, yielding five peer relationship profiles that were consistent with expectations based on previous research (i.e., Seidman et al., 1999). Profile differences were obtained for all motivation-related variables and were in theoretically consistent directions. Those young athletes categorized in more adaptive peer relationship profiles had more adaptive motivation-related responses. The findings support theoretical perspectives on social relationships and motivation as well as the efficacy of a person-centered approach to the examination of peer relationships in sport.
Alan L. Smith, Sarah Ullrich-French, Eddie Walker II and Kimberly S. Hurley
Alan G. Ingham and Rob Beamish
This paper begins with an examination of five “manifest absurdities” that arise in the exchange between MacAloon and, Hargreaves and Tomlinson. It continues with a critical analysis of Morgan’s attempt at conflict resolution, paying special attention to his distorted discussion of hegemony. Against this background, the authors argue that one of the major omissions in sociology (of sport or otherwise) is the careful analysis of the enculturation of social subject (especially against the background of contemporary concerns about time, space, and resources). Thus, in the final section of this paper, the issue of the enculturation of the social subject is addressed through a fusion of the insights of Sigmund Freud and Raymond Williams. In fusing Williams and Freud, the authors engage the social subject, the enculturated subject, as a problematic which must be followed in its precarious maneuvering between enablement and constraint—that is, the trialectic of being and becoming social.
Joseph J. Godek
The key players in sports health care in the '90s will be physicians, athletic trainers, and physical therapists. The social and economic forces affecting our health care delivery system today must be considered by these professions as they assume their roles in sports health care. Athletic trainers are qualified to treat athletes in any setting but are best used in the traditional environment. Physical therapists should reemphasize the rehabilitation of the sick, infirm, and disabled and should take the lead in providing care for disabled athletes. Physicians must be the leaders in sports health care. They are best prepared to arbitrate the ongoing conflict between athletic trainers and physical therapists and to decide which of these professionals can treat recreational athletes.
Donetta J. Cothran
Current conceptualizations of student learning recognize the active, constructivist, and mutually influential nature of student-teacher interactions in the shared class environment. Since students and teachers enter the classroom with potentially different prior experiences and current beliefs, their interpretation of class events may not be the same. Those differences may lead to misunderstandings and conflict; therefore, it is important to examine the student perspective on physical education. This paper offers two examples—curricular values and teaching styles—of student-teacher similarities and differences, and how those similarities and differences impact what does and does not happen in physical education class. A consistent theme across both examples is the importance of both achievement and nonachievement factors, and suggestions are offered for how physical education might better incorporate both factors to increase student learning and student and teacher enjoyment.
Joy Griffin and Mary B. Harris
In this study, two groups of sport psychologists (N = 107) were surveyed six years apart to (a) identify sources of stress and rate the intensity of selected stressors, (b) investigate gender and other demographic variables associated with stress, and (c) determine if level of stress had changed over time. Self-reported stressors included time demands, interpersonal interactions, role conflict, limited resources, credibility, marketing/business issues, lack of support, professional isolation, politics, research, teaching loads, ethical issues, job security, and family demands. Time demands and institutional policies were rated as most stressful. Both gender and tenure status were related to stress, but age, years of experience, and number of hours worked per day did not correlate with intensity of stress. Based upon respondents’ beliefs and a comparison of the two samples we concluded that stress has increased over time.
Timothy J.L. Chandler and Alan D. Goldberg
The purpose of this study was to assess the perceived importance (salience) of the role-identity of scholar-athlete to high school students. A total of 1,255 students responded to a questionnaire entitled “A Survey of School Climates.” Males perceived obtaining high grades and achieving athletic success—the academic All-American—as most important, while females perceived getting high grades and being a member of the leading group as their most salient role-identities. The results of this study also suggest several potential sources for adolescent role conflict as well as a research methodology for examining the relationship between the adolescent value structure and indices of academic achievement, personal development, and psychological stress.
Courtney D. Hall, Carolyn K. Clevenger, Rachel A. Wolf, James S. Lin, Theodore M. Johnson II and Steven L. Wolf
The use of low-cost interactive game technology for balance rehabilitation has become more popular recently, with generally good outcomes. Very little research has been undertaken to determine whether this technology is appropriate for balance assessment. The Wii balance board has good reliability and is comparable to a research-grade force plate; however, recent studies examining the relationship between Wii Fit games and measures of balance and mobility demonstrate conflicting findings. This study found that the Wii Fit was feasible for community-dwelling older women to safely use the balance board and quickly learn the Wii Fit games. The Ski Slalom game scores were strongly correlated with several balance and mobility measures, whereas Table Tilt game scores were not. Based on these findings, the Ski Slalom game may have utility in the evaluation of balance problems in community-dwelling older adults.
John Sugden and Alan Bairner
The political crisis in Northern Ireland has been met with a wide range of responses from the British state. Apart from a manifest increase in its coercive powers, in an attempt to maintain hegemonic supremacy there have been state sponsored initiatives directed toward penetrating and influencing various aspects of the Province’s popular culture. Because of the close relationship between sport, leisure, and the separate cultural traditions that underpin the political conflict, this area of popular culture has proven to be highly contested terrain. While traditional Marxist approaches to the study of superstructural formations have been greatly enhanced by the application of categories drawn from Gramsci’s political analysis, the Northern Ireland case reveals that Gramsci’s distinction between political and civil society is only useful so long as its application is flexible enough to accommodate the widest possible range of social divisions.
Lindsey J. Meân and Jeffrey W. Kassing
The purpose of this study was to examine identity and spectator/fan communication at youth sporting events. Data were collected through naturalistic observation of 44 youth sporting events. The median age range of the athletes was 6–11 years. Critical discourse analysis revealed the enactment of overlapping and conflicting identities (sports fan/spectator, coach, and parent) and the re/production of the ideology of winning (at all costs) and aggressive competition, rather than participation, support, and “unconditional” encouragement. In particular, the enactment or performance of sports identities, including identification with athletes, was observed to overlap with the enactment of parental identities and identification with children in ways that suggested that the salient issue was enhancement of parent self-categorization as sports spectator/fan, coach, and parent of a great athlete through the success of the child-athlete. That is, talk and identity performance were less about the children and more about parents’ identities.
Wendy M. Rodgers, Camilla J. Knight, Anne-Marie Selzler, Ian L. Reade and Gregory F. Ryan
The purposes of this study were to, (a) assess motivational experiences of performance enhancement tasks (PET) and administrative tasks (AT), and; (b) examine the relationships of emergent motivational experiences of each task type to coaches’ perceived stress and intentions to continue coaching. In total, 572 coaches completed an online survey, which assessed autonomy, competence, relatedness, and other characteristics of PET and AT, intentions to continue coaching, and perceived stress. Two separate exploratory factor analyses (EFA) were conducted, one for AT and one for PET. This was followed up with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and SEM to examine relationships between emerging factors and stress and intentions. The factors generated for PET reflected ideas of autonomy, time conflict, and satisfaction, and for AT also included competence, effort, and job requirements. The resulting experiences of AT and PET appear to have different influences on stress and intentions, suggesting their distinction will be important in future work examining coach retention.