& Inman, 1964 ), and the extrinsic muscles are active in the push-off phase ( Akuzawa, Imai, Iizuka, Matsunaga, & Kaneoka, 2016 ; Péter, Hegyi, Stenroth, Finni, & Cronin, 2015 ) during walking. A correlation between the cross-sectional area of these plantar intrinsic and extrinsic muscles and the value
Mieko Yokozuka, Chie Miki, Makoto Suzuki and Rieko Katsura
Robert M. Nideffer
This study examined the effects that varying subjects’ response sets on the Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style (TAIS) had on predictive validity. Fifteen elite divers took the TAIS under two response conditions. Initially they answered the items without a specific set or comparison group in mind. The second time they were instructed to compare themselves with other elite divers. It was hypothesized that by telling divers who to compare themselves to and by providing them with a situation-specific response set, this would increase the correlations between performance and TAIS scores. The implications and consequences of response set manipulations are discussed.
Deborah Kendzierski, R. Michael Furr Jr. and Jennifer Schiavoni
Three studies investigated the correlates of physical activity self-definitions among undergraduate exercisers and athletes, and examined the perceived criteria for defining oneself as a weightlifter, basketball player, and exerciser. Perceptions about behavior, motivation-related variables, and social world variables showed consistent relationships with self-definition; correlations between self-definition and enjoyment varied according to activity. Although affective criteria were mentioned by a sizable number of those with and without physical activity self-definitions, participants cited far more behavioral than affective criteria. Other frequently mentioned criteria were also identified. Implications for self-inference are discussed and a preliminary model of physical activity self-definition is presented.
Taniya S. Nagpal, Catherine Everest, Sara C.S. Souza, Danilo F. da Silva, Shuhiba Mohammad, Jayonta Bhattacharjee and Kristi B. Adamo
characteristics were compared at baseline using the independent t test for continuous variables and the Pearson χ 2 test for categorical variables. Normality was tested based on the Shapiro–Wilk test, and, when assumed, correlations between sedentary time and the other outcomes were performed with the Pearson
Martin Stevens, Anita Bakker-van Dijk, Mathieu H.G. de Greef, Koen A.P.M. Lemmink and Piet Rispens
The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a Dutch translation of a questionnaire to measure self-efficacy in leisure-time physical activity. The questionnaire consisted of three subscales measuring three dimensions of self-efficacy. It was completed by 461 participants, 55–65 years old. Fifty-nine participants took part in a test-retest study. Factor analysis and correlations between the sum-scores of the 3 scales confirmed that each scale measures a different dimension of self-efficacy. The criterion-related validity of 2 of the scales was found to be moderate. All 3 scales had a satisfactory internal consistency, indicating that they are reliable. Stability was assessed with a test-retest procedure, which yielded satisfactory results for 2 of the 3 scales. The results revealed an improvement in self-efficacy for 2 of the scales over a 4-week time period. When outliers were excluded, satisfactory values were obtained for intraclass correlation coefficients between the first and second measurements.
Kate A. Heelan and Joey C. Eisenmann
It is uncertain as to whether physical activity (PA) may influence the body composition of young children.
To determine the association between PA, media time, and body composition in children age 4 to 7 y.
100 children (52 girls, 48 boys) were assessed for body-mass index (BMI), body fat, fat mass (FM), and fat-free mass using dual energy x-ray absorbtiometryptiometry (DXA). PA was monitored using accelerometers and media time was reported by parental proxy.
In general, correlations were low to moderate at best (r < 0.51), but in the expected direction. Total media time and TV were significantly associated with BMI (r = 0.51, P < 0.05) and FM (r = 0.29 to 0.30, P < 0.05) in girls. In boys, computer usage was significantly associated with FM in boys (r = 0.31, P < 0.05).
The relatively low correlations suggest that other factors may influence the complex, multi-factorial body composition phenotype of young children.
Katrina D. DuBose, Sandra Edwards, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Jared P. Reis and Martha L. Slattery
Historical physical activity (PA) questionnaires assess relationships between past PA and chronic diseases. The 4-Corner’s Historical Physical Activity Questionnaire (HPAQ) was validated in 78 middle-age women.
In 1996 and 1998, women kept PA records (PAR) for four consecutive days while wearing Caltrac accelerometers. In 2001, the same women recalled their past PA levels using the HPAQ. PA levels from the HPAQ were compared to PARs and the Caltrac. Race-adjusted Spearman correlations determined validity.
Low to modest correlations existed between PA (min/wk and MET-min/wk) from the HPAQ and PARs for moderate (r = 0.16 and 0.14, respectively), vigorous PA (r = 0.26 and 0.27, respectively; P < 0.05) and moderate-vigorous PA (r = 0.20 and 0.17, respectively). Moderate and moderate-vigorous, but not vigorous PA was positively related to energy expenditure expressed as kilocalories (r = 0.23, P < 0.05 and 0.22, −0.03, respectively) or PA volume (MET-min/wk) (r = 0.29, 0.29, P < 0.05 and 0.10, respectively).
The HPAQ can produce valid estimates of women’s past moderate and vigorous PA levels.
Gershon Tenenbaum, David Furst and Gilad Welmgarten
Attribution of causality, based on Rotter's (1966) and Weiner's (1979) models, was investigated in a sport setting. The Wingate Sport Achievement Responsibility Scale (WSARS) was developed in order to examine attribution of causality separately for individual and team athletes after successful and unsuccessful events. The scale included feedback from the coach, audience, and teammates. Additional attributions were added in order to examine sport related properties of attributions. In order to examine the distinction between sport-specific attributions and general locus of control (LOG), 69 team athletes and 38 individual athletes were administered the Rotter I-E LOG Scale and the WSARS (Tenenbaum & Weingarten, 1983). Both Rotter's Scale and the WSARS were found to be reliable and valid scales through the probabilistic Rasch Model. Correlational analysis of both scales showed that attribution of causality in team and individual sports were positively related but produced low correlations, which suggests that sport attribution should be examined separately from general LOG. In addition, successful events should be examined separately from unsuccessful events and a distinction should be made between individual and team athletes.
Johanne Desrosiers, François Prince, Annie Rochette and Michel Raîche
The objectives of this study were to standardize measurement procedures and study the test-retest and interrater reliability of the belt-resisted method for measuring the lower extremity isometric strength of three muscle groups. The strength of 33 healthy, elderly, community-dwelling subjects was evaluated with a hand-held dynamometer using the belt-resisted method. Isometric strength testing of three muscle groups (hip flexors, knee extensors, and ankle dorsiflexors) was performed on two separate occasions, I week apart, by the same tester to determine test-retest reliability. The test results of two different examiners testing on different days were used to determine interrater reliability. Test-retest reliability was higher than interrater reliability. Test-retest reliability coefficients of the three muscle groups were high (J9-.95). For interrater reliability, intraclass correlation coefficients varied from .64 to .92. depending on the muscle group and side. For the two kinds of reliability, intraclass correlation coefficients increased from proximal to distal. The method for the hip muscle group should be modified to increase reliability of the measure.
James J. Annesi
The accuracy of athletes in recalling precompetition anxiety was tested using the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. Young and adolescent female gymnastics and field hockey athletes (N = 34) were tested one hour precompetition and again 48 hours postcompetition (with instructions to recall precompetition feelings). Correlations were significantly different (weaker) than when the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used within the same time frame (Harger & Raglin, 1994). After establishing individual “zones” around actual state anxiety values, based on individual zone of optimal functioning (IZOF) theory (Hanin, 1980, 1986, 1989), it was determined that the weaker correlations in the present study translated into enough incorrect in-zone/out-of-zone assessments that two-day recall, using the CSAI-2, may not be useful for IZOF research and practice. The necessity to further this research with other samples and sports was emphasized. The possibility of using alternate methods was discussed in an effort to provide accurate, minimally intrusive state anxiety measurement which may, ultimately, guide practitioners in effective intervention design through the use of IZOF, multidimensional anxiety theory, and the specific-effects (matching) hypothesis.