& Inman, 1964 ), and the extrinsic muscles are active in the push-off phase ( Akuzawa, Imai, Iizuka, Matsunaga, & Kaneoka, 2016 ; Péter, Hegyi, Stenroth, Finni, & Cronin, 2015 ) during walking. A correlation between the cross-sectional area of these plantar intrinsic and extrinsic muscles and the value
Mieko Yokozuka, Chie Miki, Makoto Suzuki and Rieko Katsura
Robert M. Nideffer
This study examined the effects that varying subjects’ response sets on the Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style (TAIS) had on predictive validity. Fifteen elite divers took the TAIS under two response conditions. Initially they answered the items without a specific set or comparison group in mind. The second time they were instructed to compare themselves with other elite divers. It was hypothesized that by telling divers who to compare themselves to and by providing them with a situation-specific response set, this would increase the correlations between performance and TAIS scores. The implications and consequences of response set manipulations are discussed.
Deborah Kendzierski, R. Michael Furr Jr. and Jennifer Schiavoni
Three studies investigated the correlates of physical activity self-definitions among undergraduate exercisers and athletes, and examined the perceived criteria for defining oneself as a weightlifter, basketball player, and exerciser. Perceptions about behavior, motivation-related variables, and social world variables showed consistent relationships with self-definition; correlations between self-definition and enjoyment varied according to activity. Although affective criteria were mentioned by a sizable number of those with and without physical activity self-definitions, participants cited far more behavioral than affective criteria. Other frequently mentioned criteria were also identified. Implications for self-inference are discussed and a preliminary model of physical activity self-definition is presented.
Johanne Desrosiers, François Prince, Annie Rochette and Michel Raîche
The objectives of this study were to standardize measurement procedures and study the test-retest and interrater reliability of the belt-resisted method for measuring the lower extremity isometric strength of three muscle groups. The strength of 33 healthy, elderly, community-dwelling subjects was evaluated with a hand-held dynamometer using the belt-resisted method. Isometric strength testing of three muscle groups (hip flexors, knee extensors, and ankle dorsiflexors) was performed on two separate occasions, I week apart, by the same tester to determine test-retest reliability. The test results of two different examiners testing on different days were used to determine interrater reliability. Test-retest reliability was higher than interrater reliability. Test-retest reliability coefficients of the three muscle groups were high (J9-.95). For interrater reliability, intraclass correlation coefficients varied from .64 to .92. depending on the muscle group and side. For the two kinds of reliability, intraclass correlation coefficients increased from proximal to distal. The method for the hip muscle group should be modified to increase reliability of the measure.
Au Bich Thuy, Leigh Blizzard, Michael Schmidt, Costan Magnussen, Emily Hansen and Terence Dwyer
Pedometer measurement of physical activity (PA) has been shown to be reliable and valid in industrialized populations, but its applicability in economically developing Vietnam remains untested. This study assessed the feasibility, stability and validity of pedometer estimates of PA in Vietnam.
250 adults from a population-based survey were randomly selected to wear Yamax pedometers and record activities for 7 consecutive days. Stability and concurrent validity were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Spearman correlation coefficients.
Overall, 97.6% of participants provided at least 1 day of usable recordings, and 76.2% wore pedometers for all 7 days. Only 5.2% of the sample participants were involved in work activities not measurable by pedometer. The number of steps increased with hours of wear. There was no significant difference between weekday and weekend in number of steps, and at least 3 days of recordings were required (ICC of the 3 days of recordings: men 0.96, women 0.97). Steps per hour were moderately correlated (men r = .42, women r = .26) with record estimates of total PA.
It is feasible to use pedometers to estimate PA in Vietnam. The measure should involve at least 3 days of recording irrespective of day of the week.
Martin Stevens, Anita Bakker-van Dijk, Mathieu H.G. de Greef, Koen A.P.M. Lemmink and Piet Rispens
The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a Dutch translation of a questionnaire to measure self-efficacy in leisure-time physical activity. The questionnaire consisted of three subscales measuring three dimensions of self-efficacy. It was completed by 461 participants, 55–65 years old. Fifty-nine participants took part in a test-retest study. Factor analysis and correlations between the sum-scores of the 3 scales confirmed that each scale measures a different dimension of self-efficacy. The criterion-related validity of 2 of the scales was found to be moderate. All 3 scales had a satisfactory internal consistency, indicating that they are reliable. Stability was assessed with a test-retest procedure, which yielded satisfactory results for 2 of the 3 scales. The results revealed an improvement in self-efficacy for 2 of the scales over a 4-week time period. When outliers were excluded, satisfactory values were obtained for intraclass correlation coefficients between the first and second measurements.
Miguel A. Calabro, Gregory J. Welk, Alicia L. Carriquiry, Sarah M. Nusser, Nicholas K. Beyler and Charles E. Matthews
The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of a computerized 24-hour physical activity recall instrument (24PAR).
Participants (n = 20) wore 2 pattern-recognition activity monitors (an IDEEA and a SenseWear Pro Armband) for a 24-hour period and then completed the 24PAR the following morning. Participants completed 2 trials, 1 while maintaining a prospective diary of their activities and 1 without a diary. The trials were counterbalanced and completed within a week from each other. Estimates of energy expenditure (EE) and minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were compared with the criterion measures using 3-way (method by gender by trial) mixed-model ANOVA analyses.
For EE, pairwise correlations were high (r > .88), and there were no differences in estimates across methods. Estimates of MVPA were more variable, but correlations were still in the moderate to high range (r > .57). Average activity levels were significantly higher on the logging trial, but there was no significant difference in the accuracy of self-report on days with and without logging.
The results of this study support the overall utility of the 24PAR for group-level estimates of daily EE and MVPA.
Kathleen Scanlin, Regine Haardoerfer, Michelle C. Kegler and Karen Glanz
Recently, investigators have begun to refine audit instruments for use in rural areas. However, no studies have developed a walkability summary score or have correlated built environment characteristics with physical activity behavior.
The Rural Pedestrian Environmental Audit Instrument was developed specifically for use in rural areas. Segments surrounding participant’s homes were selected to represent neighborhood streets (N = 116). Interrater reliability was conducted on a subset of streets (N = 42). Rural-specific domain and walkability scores were developed and correlated with individual-level data on perceptions of the neighborhood and self-reported physical activity behavior.
Interrater reliability for the instrument was substantial and all domains had high agreement. Walkability in the audited area was low with even the best segments demonstrating only moderate support for walking. There were no significant correlations between the neighborhood walkability score and self-reported neighborhood walkability, time spent walking, sedentary behavior, or BMI; however, a few correlations within the social/dynamic domain were significant.
This study expands recent research refining audit instruments for rural areas. Findings suggest the usefulness of summarizing environmental data at the domain level and linking it to physical activity behavior to identify aspects of the neighborhood environment that are most strongly correlated with actual behavior.
Lynn B. Panton, Michael R. Kushnick, J. Derek Kingsley, Robert J. Moffatt, Emily M. Haymes and Tonya Toole
To evaluate physical activity with pedometers and health markers of chronic disease in obese, lower socioeconomic African American women.
Thirty-five women (48 ± 8 y) wore pedometers for 2 weeks. One-way analyses of variances were used to compare age, weight, body mass indices (BMI), and health markers of chronic disease (including blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, glycosylated hemoglobin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein) between women who were classified by steps per day as sedentary (SED < 5,000; 2,941 ± 1,161 steps/d) or active (ACT ≥ 5,000; 7,181 ± 2,398 steps/d).
ACT had significantly lower BMI (ACT: 37.2 ± 5.6; SED: 44.4 ± 7.2 kg/m2) and hip circumferences (ACT: 37.2 ± 5.6; SED: 44.4 ± 37.2 cm) and higher total cholesterol (ACT: 230 ± 53; SED: 191 ± 32 mg/dL) than SED. There were no differences in health markers of chronic disease between SED and ACT. Pearson product moment correlations showed significant negative correlations between steps/d and weight (r = –.42), BMI (r = –.46), and hip circumference (r = –.47).
Increased levels of physical activity were associated with reduced BMI and hip circumferences but were not associated with lower health markers for chronic disease in obese, lower socioeconomic African American women.
Katrina D. DuBose, Sandra Edwards, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Jared P. Reis and Martha L. Slattery
Historical physical activity (PA) questionnaires assess relationships between past PA and chronic diseases. The 4-Corner’s Historical Physical Activity Questionnaire (HPAQ) was validated in 78 middle-age women.
In 1996 and 1998, women kept PA records (PAR) for four consecutive days while wearing Caltrac accelerometers. In 2001, the same women recalled their past PA levels using the HPAQ. PA levels from the HPAQ were compared to PARs and the Caltrac. Race-adjusted Spearman correlations determined validity.
Low to modest correlations existed between PA (min/wk and MET-min/wk) from the HPAQ and PARs for moderate (r = 0.16 and 0.14, respectively), vigorous PA (r = 0.26 and 0.27, respectively; P < 0.05) and moderate-vigorous PA (r = 0.20 and 0.17, respectively). Moderate and moderate-vigorous, but not vigorous PA was positively related to energy expenditure expressed as kilocalories (r = 0.23, P < 0.05 and 0.22, −0.03, respectively) or PA volume (MET-min/wk) (r = 0.29, 0.29, P < 0.05 and 0.10, respectively).
The HPAQ can produce valid estimates of women’s past moderate and vigorous PA levels.