Archery instructors believe that force distribution (FD) between the hand and bow grip can have a considerable effect on arrow flight, but there is no empirical support for this speculation. This study examined FD on the bow grip in experienced archers and explored the possible relationships between FD, performance, and fatigue. FD was quantified for 15 experienced archers (8 highly skilled [HS] and 7 less skilled [LS]) using 15 unobtrusive force sensors as each archer completed 72 shots. Arrow position relative to the target center, estimated net moments and moment arms about vertical and horizontal axes through the grip, and shot-to-shot variability in the estimated moments and moment arms were computed for three blocks of six shots. Results demonstrated that (a) estimated moments and moment arms were not consistently related to observed vertical or horizontal deviations in arrow position, (b) there were no systematic differences in FD between HS and LS archers, (c) fatigue had no quantifiable effect on FD, and (d) HS archers displayed less shot-to-shot variability in vertical FD than LS archers, but similar variability horizontally. Results did not support the above-noted common belief of archery instructors.
Philip E. Martin and Gary D. Heise
Peter F. Vint and Richard N. Hinrichs
Isometric knee extension force and average integrated EMG of the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained from 27 healthy subjects using a maximum effort, ramp and hold protocol. In each of the 125 total trials mat were included in the analysis, a 2-s plateau region was extracted and divided into two adjacent 1000-ms bins. Variability and reliability of bin-to-bin measurements of force and EMG were then evaluated across 14 different integration intervals ranging from 10 to 1000 ms. Statistical analyses of bin-to-bin variability measures demonstrated that integration intervals of 250 ms and longer significantly reduced variability and improved reliability of average integrated EMG values during maximum effort isometric exertions. Bin-to-bin EMG reliability increased from .728 at 10 ms to .991 at 1000 ms. Force parameters appeared less sensitive to changes in length of the integration interval. It was suggested that longer intervals might also improve the validity of the EMG-force relationship during maximum effort isometric exertions by reducing problems associated with electromechanical delay.
Eadric Bressel, Gerald Smith, Andrew Miller and Dennis Dolny
Context: Quantification of the magnitudes of fluid resistance provided by water jets (currents) and their effect on energy expenditure during aquatic-treadmill walking is lacking in the scientific literature. Objective: To quantify the effect of water-jet intensity on jet velocity, drag force, and oxygen uptake (VO2) during aquatic-treadmill walking. Design: Descriptive and repeated measures. Setting: Athletic training facility. Participants, Interventions, and Measures: Water-jet velocities were measured using an electromagnetic flow meter at 9 different jet intensities (0-80% maximum). Drag forces on 3 healthy subjects with a range of frontal areas (600, 880, and 1250 cm2) were measured at each jet intensity with a force transducer and line attached to the subject, who was suspended in water. Five healthy participants (age 37.2 ± 11.3 y, weight 611 ± 96 N) subsequently walked (~1.03 m/s or 2.3 miles/h) on an aquatic treadmill at the 9 different jet intensities while expired gases were collected to estimate VO2. Results: For the range of jet intensities, water-jet velocities and drag forces were 0-1.2 m/s and 0-47 N, respectively. VO2 increased nonlinearly, with values ranging from 11.4 ± 1.0 to 22.2 ± 3.8 mL × kg-1 × min-1 for 0-80% of jet maximum, respectively. Conclusions: This study presented methodology for quantifying water-jet flow velocities and drag forces in an aquatic-treadmill environment and examined how different jet intensities influenced VO2 during walking. Quantification of these variables provides a fundamental understanding of aquatic-jet use and its effect on VO2. In practice, these results indicate that VO2 may be substantially increased on an aquatic treadmill while maintaining a relatively slow walking speed.
Eamon T. Campolettano, Gunnar Brolinson and Steven Rowson
practice effect is variable. 26 Alternatively, a static balance assessment on a force plate consisting of eyes open and eyes closed trials has been used to assess athlete postural control. 20 , 27 – 36 These protocols typically track center of pressure trajectories to characterize balance. This
Saira Chaudhry, Dylan Morrissey, Roger C. Woledge, Dan L. Bader and Hazel R.C. Screen
Triceps surae eccentric exercise is more effective than concentric exercise for treating Achilles tendinopathy, however the mechanisms underpinning these effects are unclear. This study compared the biomechanical characteristics of eccentric and concentric exercises to identify differences in the tendon load response. Eleven healthy volunteers performed eccentric and concentric exercises on a force plate, with ultrasonography, motion tracking, and EMG applied to measure Achilles tendon force, lower limb movement, and leg muscle activation. Tendon length was ultrasonographically tracked and quantified using a novel algorithm. The Fourier transform of the ground reaction force was also calculated to investigate for tremor, or perturbations. Tendon stiffness and extension did not vary between exercise types (P = .43). However, tendon perturbations were significantly higher during eccentric than concentric exercises (25%–40% higher, P = .02). Furthermore, perturbations during eccentric exercises were found to be negatively correlated with the tendon stiffness (R 2 = .59). The particular efficacy of eccentric exercise does not appear to result from variation in tendon stiffness or extension within a given session. However, varied perturbation magnitude may have a role in mediating the observed clinical effects. This property is subject-specific, with the source and clinical timecourse of such perturbations requiring further research.
Kenneth Meijer, Henk J. Grootenboer, Bart F.J.M. Koopman and Peter A. Huijing
The effect of various shortening histories on postshortening isometric length-force characteristics of rat medial gastrocnemlus (GM) was studied. Active muscle force and muscle geometry were analyzed after isotonic as well as isokinetic shortening. Active shortening significantly changed GM length-force characteristics (i.e., maximal muscle force, optimum muscle length, and active slack length). Muscle geometry did not change, which indicates that the observed changes in length-force curves are related to intracellular processes. Length-force curves valid during shortening, derived from postshortening characteristics, were very different from the fully isometric length-force curve. Their most remarkable feature was the absence of a negative slope. It was concluded that the length-force curve valid during active shortening strongly depends upon shortening characteristics (i.e., initial length and shortening speed). As a consequence, the traditional, fully isometric, length-force curve is a poor estimator of the length-force curve during dynamic contractions of muscle. Implications for muscle function are discussed.
Panagiotis Ioakimidis, Vasilios Gerodimos, Eleftherios Kellis and Spiros Kellis
Fifteen young basketball players (aged 14.4 – 0.5 yrs) underwent two identical testing sessions spaced one week apart, to determine the reliability of maximum isometric force and force-time parameters during a maximal bilateral isometric leg press effort. The maximal isometric force (MIF), the ratio of maximal force to time (T MIF) to attain maximal force (ARMIF), starting strength (F 50), and on a relative scale the time taken to increase the force from 10% to 30%, 60%, and 90% of maximal force were calculated. High intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were found for MIF (0.96), ARMIF (0.85), and F50 (0.90). On the relative scale, the ICCs for the times to produce 30%, 60%, and 90% of maximum force were 0.94, 0.95, 0.95, respectively. The present results indicate that maximum isometric force and the force-time parameters during a bilateral leg press can be measured reliably in pubertal basketball players.
Kimberly B. Harbst, Jo-Anne C. Lazarus and Jill Whitall
The purpose of this study was to investigate how children and adults control bimanual activities with the influence of kinematic variables minimized. Force and timing measures were analyzed in self-paced, isometric bimanual pinch tasks performed by 6-, 8-, 10-, 12-year-old, and adult subjects. Subjects (n = 84) performed four tasks (inphase symmetrical, antiphase reciprocal, inphase asymmetrical force-right high, inphase asymmetrical force-left high) cycling between low levels (10-30%) of maximal volitional force during three 15-s trials. Bimanual tasks requiring similar activation between the hands were performed more accurately, more quickly, and with less force and timing variability than tasks requiring different actions and/or levels of force to be produced simultaneously. Evidence of force entrainment between the hands was exhibited when force direction (increasing vs. decreasing) was similar between hands but greater relative force was required of the left hand. Lower accuracy and greater variability resulted when controlled decrement of force was required to reach the lower force targets as opposed to the upper force targets which required subjects to increase force. Subjects in the two youngest age groups exhibited lower force accuracy and greater force and timing variability relative to older children and adults. Twelve-year-old subjects approximated adults' performance in all variables.
Daniela JS Mattos, Susana Cristina Domenech, Noé Gomes Borges Junior and Marcio José Santos
Eight subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) (47.13 ± 7.83 years) and 8 matched controls (46.29 ± 7.27 years) manipulated a test object fitted with an accelerometer and force sensor, both before and after hand muscle fatigue. Grip force and object acceleration were recorded and used to calculate grip force control variables that included Grip Force Peak, Safety Margin, and Time to Grip Force Peak. Individuals with CTS exhibited a higher Safety Margin (p = .010) and longer Time to Peak of Grip Force (p = .012) than healthy controls during object manipulation. Once fatigued, both groups significantly decreased their grip force to perform the task (Grip Force Peak; p = .017 and Safety Margin; p < .001). Nevertheless, individuals with CTS maintained an unnecessarily high safety margin. Our results suggest that CTS can adversely affect how the central nervous system regulates grip force, which might aggravate the inflammatory process and exacerbate the symptoms of this disease.
S. L. Hong, M-H. Lee and K.M. Newell
This experiment examined the magnitude and structure of force variability in isometric index finger force production tasks at 5, 15, 25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75, 85, and 95% of maximal force in two different finger orientations. In the finger flexion task, the participants generated a downward isometric force through index finger flexion. In the finger abduction task, isometric force was generated by adducting the index finger (mediolateral motion of the middle finger and forearm were restricted). The task-related, normal force (Fz) and tangential forces (Fx and Fy) were collected with a three-dimensional force transducer. The standard deviation (SD) of the task-related force output (Fz) increased exponentially with force level. With increasing force level, approximate entropy (ApEn, a measure of irregularity) of Fz followed an inverted-U function for finger flexion, but decreased linearly in finger abduction. However, changes in the ApEn of the tangential forces were generally opposite to that of Fz, revealing compensations in the irregularity of force output between force dimensions. The findings provide evidence that force variability is related to muscle force-length characteristics (Feldman, 1966; Gottlieb & Agarwal, 1988).