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Paul J. McCarthy, Marc V. Jones, Chris G. Harwood and Steve Olivier

One reason sport psychologists teach psychological skills is to enhance performance in sport; but the value of psychological skills for young athletes is questionable because of the qualitative and quantitative differences between children and adults in their understanding of abstract concepts such as mental skills. To teach these skills effectively to young athletes, sport psychologists need to appreciate what young athletes implicitly understand about such skills because maturational (e.g., cognitive, social) and environmental (e.g., coaches) factors can influence the progressive development of children and youth. In the present qualitative study, we explored young athletes’ (aged 10–15 years) understanding of four basic psychological skills: goal setting, mental imagery, self-talk, and relaxation. Young athletes (n= 118: 75 males and 43 females) completed an open-ended questionnaire to report their understanding of these four basic psychological skills. Compared with the older youth athletes, the younger youth athletes were less able to explain the meaning of each psychological skill. Goal setting and mental imagery were better understood than self-talk and relaxation. Based on these fndings, sport psychologists should consider adapting interventions and psychoeducational programs to match young athletes’ age and developmental level.

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Laura St. Germain, Amanda M. Rymal and David J. Hancock

-observation when combined with a skilled model on the learning of gymnastics skills . Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 6 , 18 – 34 . doi:10.1123/jmld.2016-0027 10.1123/jmld.2016-0027 Rymal , A.M. , & Ste-Marie , D.M. ( 2009 ). Does self-modeling affect imagery ability or vividness? Journal of

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Avelina C. Padin, Charles F. Emery, Michael Vasey and Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser

guided imagery intervention aimed at improving both implicit and explicit affective attitudes toward exercise. Regardless of PA level, individuals who completed the guided imagery intervention had more positive implicit attitudes toward exercise immediately following the intervention. Additionally

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dilation, motor imagery, and cognitive load Alberto Cordova, Elena Camargo, William Land, Wan Xiang Yao, University of Texas - San Antonio Empirical and analytical methods are used every day by researchers to study and understand how the human brain gathers and processes information that is presented to it

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Juliana Hotta Ansai, Larissa Pires de Andrade, Paulo Giusti Rossi, Theresa Helissa Nakagawa, Francisco Assis Carvalho Vale and José Rubens Rebelatto

gait speed was still intact, changes in quantitative measures of the turning subtask (time) showed a significant association with cognitive decline ( Greene & Kenny, 2012 ). Wagner et al. ( 2008 ) assessed 12 healthy adults during mental imagery of walking along a curved path and walking straight ahead

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Peiyuan Wang, Frank J. Infurna and Sydney Y. Schaefer

working memory processes linked to mental rotation ( Anguera, Reuter-Lorenz, Willingham, & Seidler, 2009 ; Fernandez-Ruiz, Wong, Armstrong, & Flanagan, 2011 ). Moreover, Jeunet and colleagues have shown that the ability to learn motor imagery brain-computer interfaces (i.e., BCI literacy) is also related

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Emmanuel Jacobs, Ann Hallemans, Jan Gielen, Luc Van den Dries, Annouk Van Moorsel, Jonas Rutgeerts and Nathalie A. Roussel

.1186/1743-0003-3-4 Couillandre , A. , Lewton-Brain , P. , & Portero , P. ( 2008 ). Exploring the effects of kinesiological awareness and mental imagery on movement intention in the performance of demi-plie . Journal of Dance Medicine & Science, 12 ( 3 ), 91 – 98 . PubMed Gentile , A. ( 1972 ). A working model of

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

authors wanted to examine how various social training contexts can influence running identity and behavior. In the first study, 103 middle-aged runners ( M age  = 45.39 years) who were currently training in formal running groups were provided one of two scenarios and asked to use imagery to view

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Jasmin C. Hutchinson, Zachary Zenko, Sam Santich and Paul C. Dalton

); therefore, listening to increasingly preferred music throughout an exercise bout (i.e., saving a favorite track for the end) might lead to a positive slope of pleasure. The use of enjoyment-focused imagery has been shown to improve pleasure during aerobic exercise ( Stanley & Cumming, 2010 ) and might be

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Margaret P. Sanders and Nicholas P. Murray

-defense program requires the instructor to provide physical demonstration, cues that promote imagery of the task, use of analogies to promote feelings of the action, and kinematic learning of the skill ( Angleman, Shinzato, Van Hasselt, & Russo, 2009 ; Liu, 2003 ). The cues that promote kinematic learning and