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Daniel C. McFarland, Alexander G. Brynildsen and Katherine R. Saul

experimental kinematics. Reserve actuators were included to provide additional joint torque where required to track kinematics. 29 Mean root mean squared reserve torque was <1.0 N·m for all coordinates for all trials; simulations requiring reserve torque >5 N·m are reported (Table  1 ). Of the 120 simulations

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James Hackney, Jade McFarland, David Smith and Clinton Wallis

part of natural movement in nonhuman vertebrates ( Shen & Seipel, 2015 ) and insects ( Dudek & Full, 2006 ), and in humans ( Minetti, 1998 ; Prilutsky & Zatsiorsky, 2002 ). Second, research implies that the multiple sources of joint torque through the lower body converge to predictable force at the

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Jared R. Fletcher and Brian R. MacIntosh

Y , Kanehisa H . Muscle volume is a major determinant of joint torque in humans . Acta Physiol Scand . 2001 ; 172 ( 4 ): 249 – 255 . PubMed ID: 11531646 doi:10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00867.x 11531646 10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00867.x 4. Pandy MG . Moment arm of a muscle force . Exerc Sport

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Fawaz A. Alwadani, Huaqing Liang and Alexander S. Aruin

& Vieira, 2017 ; Lin & Nussbaum, 2012 ). Moreover, it was reported that the plantarflexion stance is associated with an increase in the soleus muscle activation, and it was reasoned that the calf muscle activity might result in a noise-like fluctuation in the ankle joint torque to sufficiently control the

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Timothy A. Hanke, Bruce Kay, Michael Turvey and David Tiberio

-related changes in hip abductor and adductor joint torques . Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85 , 593 – 597 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2003.07.022 10.1016/j.apmr.2003.07.022 Kay , B.A. , Kelso , J.A.S. , Saltzman , E.L. , & Schoner , G. ( 1987 ). Space-time behavior of single and

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Ben Serrien, Maggy Goossens and Jean-Pierre Baeyens

increasing performance. Conversely, participants further away from their PHV 1 showed stronger decreases in CV. Growth and weight gain affect the moments of inertia and it has been shown that muscle strength does not increase proportionally to produce higher joint torques ( Jensen, 1981 , 1989 ). Athletes

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Katie A. Conway, Randall G. Bissette and Jason R. Franz

joint torques and powers during gait . J Appl Physiol (Bethesda, Md: 1985) . 2000 ; 88 ( 5 ): 1804 – 1811 . PubMed ID: 10797145 doi:10.1152/jappl.2000.88.5.1804 10.1152/jappl.2000.88.5.1804 20. Judge JO , Davis RB 3rd , Ounpuu S . Step length reductions in advanced age: the role of ankle

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Andrea Biscarini, Samuele Contemori and Giuditta Grolla

online ahead of print January 24, 2018]. J Sport Rehabil . doi:10.1123/jsr.2017-0232 29364045 31. Biscarini A , Busti D , Calandra A , Contemori S . The “supine bridge” therapeutic exercise: determination of joint torques by means of biomechanical modeling and technologies . J Mech Med Biol

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Daniela Corbetta, Rebecca F. Wiener, Sabrina L. Thurman and Emalie McMahon

development of goal-directed reaching in infants: Hand trajectory formation and joint torque control . Experimental Brain Research, 106 , 156 – 168 . PubMed doi:10.1007/BF00241365 10.1007/BF00241365 Lasky , R.E. ( 1977 ). The effect of visual feedback of the hand on the reaching and retrieval behavior

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Renato Claudino, Marcio José dos Santos and Giovana Zarpellon Mazo

, which was more accentuated in the older fallers group. The authors suggested that although the older adults in this study generated higher muscle activity, they did not necessarily developed higher joint torques to properly withstand perturbation forces ( Billot, Simoneau, Van Hoecke, & Martin, 2010