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Rebecca L. Krupenevich, William H. Clark, Gregory S. Sawicki and Jason R. Franz

Rev . 2016 ; 44 ( 4 ): 129 – 136 . doi:10.1249/JES.0000000000000086 27433977 10.1249/JES.0000000000000086 2. DeVita P , Hortobagyi T . Age causes a redistribution of joint torques and power during gait . J Appl Physiol . 2000 ; 88 : 1804 – 1811 . PubMed ID: 10797145 doi:10.1152/jappl.2000

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Jared R. Fletcher and Brian R. MacIntosh

Y , Kanehisa H . Muscle volume is a major determinant of joint torque in humans . Acta Physiol Scand . 2001 ; 172 ( 4 ): 249 – 255 . PubMed ID: 11531646 doi:10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00867.x 11531646 10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00867.x 4. Pandy MG . Moment arm of a muscle force . Exerc Sport

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Xavier García-Massó, Adrià Marco-Ahulló, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Julio Álvarez-Pitti and Jose-Luis Bermejo

pointed out above, the lower postural stability of overweight/obese children (8–12 years old) and adolescents could be due to deficient muscle force production. Following the inverted pendulum model for upright stance, the higher the body mass the larger and faster the joint torques to maintain stability

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Renato Claudino, Marcio José dos Santos and Giovana Zarpellon Mazo

, which was more accentuated in the older fallers group. The authors suggested that although the older adults in this study generated higher muscle activity, they did not necessarily developed higher joint torques to properly withstand perturbation forces ( Billot, Simoneau, Van Hoecke, & Martin, 2010

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Daniela Corbetta, Rebecca F. Wiener, Sabrina L. Thurman and Emalie McMahon

development of goal-directed reaching in infants: Hand trajectory formation and joint torque control . Experimental Brain Research, 106 , 156 – 168 . PubMed doi:10.1007/BF00241365 10.1007/BF00241365 Lasky , R.E. ( 1977 ). The effect of visual feedback of the hand on the reaching and retrieval behavior

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Timothy A. Hanke, Bruce Kay, Michael Turvey and David Tiberio

-related changes in hip abductor and adductor joint torques . Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85 , 593 – 597 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2003.07.022 10.1016/j.apmr.2003.07.022 Kay , B.A. , Kelso , J.A.S. , Saltzman , E.L. , & Schoner , G. ( 1987 ). Space-time behavior of single and

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Ben Serrien, Maggy Goossens and Jean-Pierre Baeyens

increasing performance. Conversely, participants further away from their PHV 1 showed stronger decreases in CV. Growth and weight gain affect the moments of inertia and it has been shown that muscle strength does not increase proportionally to produce higher joint torques ( Jensen, 1981 , 1989 ). Athletes

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Katie A. Conway, Randall G. Bissette and Jason R. Franz

joint torques and powers during gait . J Appl Physiol (Bethesda, Md: 1985) . 2000 ; 88 ( 5 ): 1804 – 1811 . PubMed ID: 10797145 doi:10.1152/jappl.2000.88.5.1804 10.1152/jappl.2000.88.5.1804 20. Judge JO , Davis RB 3rd , Ounpuu S . Step length reductions in advanced age: the role of ankle

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Jaqueline M. Porto, Sállua B. Spilla, Luciana M. Cangussu-Oliveira, Renato C. Freire Júnior, Ana Paula M. Nakaishi and Daniela C.C. de Abreu

.Z. , Spinoso , D.H. , Almeida Neto , A.F. , . . . Gonçalves , M. ( 2013 ). Motor readiness and joint torque production in lower limbs of older women fallers and non-fallers . Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 23 ( 5 ), 1131 – 1138 . PubMed ID: 23747140 doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2013.04.016 10

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Jocelyn F. Hafer, Mark S. Miller, Jane A. Kent and Katherine A. Boyer

funding for this study was provided by an American College of Sports Medicine Foundation Doctoral Research Grant (JFH) . The authors declare no conflict of interest. References 1. DeVita P , Hortobagyi T . Age causes a redistribution of joint torques and powers during gait . J Appl Physiol . 2000