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Daniel C. McFarland, Alexander G. Brynildsen and Katherine R. Saul

experimental kinematics. Reserve actuators were included to provide additional joint torque where required to track kinematics. 29 Mean root mean squared reserve torque was <1.0 N·m for all coordinates for all trials; simulations requiring reserve torque >5 N·m are reported (Table  1 ). Of the 120 simulations

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Jared R. Fletcher and Brian R. MacIntosh

Y , Kanehisa H . Muscle volume is a major determinant of joint torque in humans . Acta Physiol Scand . 2001 ; 172 ( 4 ): 249 – 255 . PubMed ID: 11531646 doi:10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00867.x 11531646 10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00867.x 4. Pandy MG . Moment arm of a muscle force . Exerc Sport

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Xavier García-Massó, Adrià Marco-Ahulló, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Julio Álvarez-Pitti and Jose-Luis Bermejo

pointed out above, the lower postural stability of overweight/obese children (8–12 years old) and adolescents could be due to deficient muscle force production. Following the inverted pendulum model for upright stance, the higher the body mass the larger and faster the joint torques to maintain stability

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Renato Claudino, Marcio José dos Santos and Giovana Zarpellon Mazo

, which was more accentuated in the older fallers group. The authors suggested that although the older adults in this study generated higher muscle activity, they did not necessarily developed higher joint torques to properly withstand perturbation forces ( Billot, Simoneau, Van Hoecke, & Martin, 2010

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Timothy A. Hanke, Bruce Kay, Michael Turvey and David Tiberio

-related changes in hip abductor and adductor joint torques . Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85 , 593 – 597 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2003.07.022 10.1016/j.apmr.2003.07.022 Kay , B.A. , Kelso , J.A.S. , Saltzman , E.L. , & Schoner , G. ( 1987 ). Space-time behavior of single and

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Momoko Yamagata, Ali Falaki and Mark L. Latash

. In panel a, the dashed line shows the overall joint torque–angle characteristic. The control can be expressed with two pairs of control variables, activation thresholds for the two muscles (λ AG and λ ANT ) and the reciprocal command ( r ) and coactivation command ( c ). Panels a and b illustrate

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Jocelyn F. Hafer, Mark S. Miller, Jane A. Kent and Katherine A. Boyer

funding for this study was provided by an American College of Sports Medicine Foundation Doctoral Research Grant (JFH) . The authors declare no conflict of interest. References 1. DeVita P , Hortobagyi T . Age causes a redistribution of joint torques and powers during gait . J Appl Physiol . 2000

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Daniela Corbetta, Rebecca F. Wiener, Sabrina L. Thurman and Emalie McMahon

development of goal-directed reaching in infants: Hand trajectory formation and joint torque control . Experimental Brain Research, 106 , 156 – 168 . PubMed doi:10.1007/BF00241365 10.1007/BF00241365 Lasky , R.E. ( 1977 ). The effect of visual feedback of the hand on the reaching and retrieval behavior

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Andrea Biscarini, Samuele Contemori and Giuditta Grolla

online ahead of print January 24, 2018]. J Sport Rehabil . doi:10.1123/jsr.2017-0232 29364045 31. Biscarini A , Busti D , Calandra A , Contemori S . The “supine bridge” therapeutic exercise: determination of joint torques by means of biomechanical modeling and technologies . J Mech Med Biol

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Katie A. Conway, Randall G. Bissette and Jason R. Franz

joint torques and powers during gait . J Appl Physiol (Bethesda, Md: 1985) . 2000 ; 88 ( 5 ): 1804 – 1811 . PubMed ID: 10797145 doi:10.1152/jappl.2000.88.5.1804 10.1152/jappl.2000.88.5.1804 20. Judge JO , Davis RB 3rd , Ounpuu S . Step length reductions in advanced age: the role of ankle