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Meg E. Letton, Jeanette M. Thom and Rachel E. Ward

: ↓ body fat (11.7%), ↑ lean body mass (5.7%) Hormones: ↑ testosterone (19.7%), ↓ cortisol (2.5%) 8 Hedgepeth (1987) 20 Dancers enrolled in a ballet class. Years training: 2 9 18–23 Barre exercises (25–30 min) including stretching, center work (45–50 min) including balancing and jumping 1.5 h, 3 d/wk 8

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Ryan G. Timmins, Baubak Shamim, Paul J. Tofari, Jack T. Hickey and Donny M. Camera

body mass. Participants were then allocated to either RT (n = 10), END (n = 10), or CONC (n = 12) for the 12-week intervention. For the duration of the study, participants consumed a high-protein diet of 2 g/kg/d, which was confirmed through weekly food logs submitted to the researchers. 14

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Todd Miller, Stephanie Mull, Alan Albert Aragon, James Krieger and Brad Jon Schoenfeld

training in overweight women on a ketogenic diet conserved lean body mass while reducing body fat . Nutrition & Metabolism, 7 , 17 . PubMed doi:10.1186/1743-7075-7-17 10.1186/1743-7075-7-17 Josse , A.R. , Atkinson , S.A. , Tarnopolsky , M.A. , & Phillips , S.M. ( 2011 ). Increased consumption

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Nicolas Berryman, Iñigo Mujika and Laurent Bosquet

body mass and upper body maximal strength were reported between interventions (RT or RT + HIIT). Contrary to previous research, 6 these results suggested that a cycling intervention could lead to more strength impairments than a running program but the authors did not provide any insights about

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Robert S. Thiebaud, Takashi Abe, Jeremy P. Loenneke, Tyler Garcia, Yohan Shirazi and Ross McArthur

. 2012 ; 7 ( 12 ): e52843 . doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052843 23300795 10. Thiebaud RS , Loenneke JP , Fahs CA , et al . The effects of elastic band resistance training combined with blood flow restriction on strength, total bone-free lean body mass and muscle thickness in postmenopausal women

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Kim Beals, Katherine A. Perlsweig, John E. Haubenstriker, Mita Lovalekar, Chris P. Beck, Darcie L. Yount, Matthew E. Darnell, Katelyn Allison and Bradley C. Nindl

essential amino acids throughout the day can help maintain lean body mass and muscle strength during periods of suboptimal caloric intake ( Pasiakos et al., 2013 ; Phillips, 2013 ; Rodriguez, 2013 ). Students consumed a mean fat intake of 1.6 ± 0.4 g·kg −1 ·day −1 (42% ± 5.5% total calories) (RC) and 1

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Ellen Freiberger, Elisabeth Rydwik, Astrid Chorus, Erwin Tak, Christophe Delecluse, Federico Schena, Nina Waaler, Bob Laventure and Nico van Meeteren

. PLoS ONE, 10 ( 2 ), e0118293 . PubMed 10.1371/journal.pone.0118293 Peterson , M.D. , Sen , A. , & Gordon , P.M. ( 2011 ). Influence of resistance exercise on lean body mass in aging adults: A meta-analysis . Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 43 , 249 – 258 . PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS

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Panagiota Klentrou, Kirina Angrish, Nafisa Awadia, Nigel Kurgan, Rozalia Kouvelioti and Bareket Falk

10.2 (0.4) 10.5 (0.4) .23 Height, cm 142.6 (2.0) 146.5 (3.3) .17 Body mass, kg 34.4 (1.5) 38.4 (2.8) .14 Body mass index, kg·m −2 16.9 (0.6) 17.6 (0.5) .34 Body fat, % 12.0 (1.7) 15.0 (2.4) .39 Lean body mass, kg 30.2 (1.2) 26.2 (4.0)* .03 Age from peak height velocity, y −2.9 (0.2) −0.9 (0.4)* .03

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Abby L. Cheng, John A. Merlo, Devyani Hunt, Ted Yemm, Robert H. Brophy and Heidi Prather

female youth ice hockey athletes who had reached menarche compared with those who had not, with an incidence rate ratio of 4.1 (95% CI, 1.0–16.8). These findings are notable because although BMI is not an ideal measure of fat versus lean body mass, body composition is modifiable and further investigation

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Emily Arentson-Lantz, Elfego Galvan, Adam Wacher, Christopher S. Fry and Douglas Paddon-Jones

/min (vs. resting: 65 ± 3 beats/min). The BR protocol ensured that all other weight bearings and most other incidental activities of daily living (particularly of the lower body) were minimized. Body Composition BR had a characteristically negative effect on lean body mass (Table  2 ). Total fat mass was