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Andrew A. Dingley, David B. Pyne and Brendan Burkett

Purpose:

To characterize relationships between propulsion, anthropometry, and performance in Paralympic swimming.

Methods:

A cross-sectional study of swimmers (13 male, 15 female) age 20.5 ± 4.4 y was conducted. Subject locomotor categorizations were no physical disability (n = 8, classes S13–S14) and low-severity (n = 11, classes S9–S10) or midseverity disability (n = 9, classes S6–S8). Full anthropometric profiles estimated muscle mass and body fat, a bilateral swim-bench ergometer quantified upper-body power production, and 100-m time trials quantified swimming performance.

Results:

Correlations between ergometer mean power and swimming performance increased with degree of physical disability (low-severity male r = .65, ±0.56, and female r = .68, ±0.64; midseverity, r = .87, ±0.41, and r = .79, ±0.75). The female midseverity group showed nearperfect (positive) relationships for taller swimmers’ (with a greater muscle mass and longer arm span) swimming faster, while for female no- and low-severity-disability groups, greater muscle mass was associated with slower velocity (r = .78, ±0.43, and r = .65, ±0.66). This was supported with lighter females (with less frontal surface area) in the low-severity group being faster (r = .94, ±0.24). In a gender contrast, low-severity males with less muscle mass (r = -.64, ±0.56), high skinfolds (r = .78, ±0.43), a longer arm span (r = .58, ±0.60) or smaller frontal surface area (r = -.93, ±0.19) were detrimental to swimming-velocity production.

Conclusion:

Low-severity male and midseverity female Paralympic swimmers should be encouraged to develop muscle mass and upper-body power to enhance swimming performance. The generalized anthropometric measures appear to be a secondary consideration for coaches.

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Jared A. Bailey, Paul B. Gastin, Luke Mackey and Dan B. Dwyer

Context:

Most previous investigations of player load in netball have used subjective methodologies, with few using objective methodologies. While all studies report differences in player activities or total load between playing positions, it is unclear how the differences in player activity explain differences in positional load.

Purpose:

To objectively quantify the load associated with typical activities for all positions in elite netball.

Methods:

The player load of all playing positions in an elite netball team was measured during matches using wearable accelerometers. Video recordings of the matches were also analyzed to record the start time and duration of 13 commonly reported netball activities. The load associated with each activity was determined by time-aligning both data sets (load and activity).

Results:

Off-ball guarding produced the highest player load per instance, while jogging produced the greatest player load per match. Nonlocomotor activities contributed least to total match load for attacking positions (goal shooter [GS], goal attack [GA], and wing attack [WA]) and most for defending positions (goalkeeper [GK], goal defense [GD], and wing defense [WD]). Specifically, centers (Cs) produced the greatest jogging load, WA and WD accumulated the greatest running load, and GS and WA accumulated the greatest shuffling load. WD and Cs accumulated the greatest guarding load, while WD and GK accumulated the greatest off-ball guarding load.

Conclusions:

All positions exhibited different contributions from locomotor and nonlocomotor activities toward total match load. In addition, the same activity can have different contributions toward total match load, depending on the position. This has implications for future design and implementation of position-specific training programs.

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* Arthur W. English * 10 1997 1 4 340 353 10.1123/mcj.1.4.340 Locomotor Patterns Elicited by Electrical Stimulation of the Brain Stem in the Mudpuppy Mark L. Shik * 10 1997 1 4 354 368 10.1123/mcj.1.4.354 mcj Motor Control 1087-1640 1543-2696 1997 1 4 10.1123/mcj.1997.1.issue-4 Point of View 10

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Ali Brian, Sally Taunton, Lauren J. Lieberman, Pamela Haibach-Beach, John Foley and Sara Santarossa

Fundamental motor skills (FMS) are the building blocks to more complex movement patterns ( Clark & Metcalfe, 2002 ). FMS are often subdivided into include object control (now referred to in the Test of Gross Motor Development-3 [TGMD-3] as ball skills) and locomotor skills ( Gallahue, Ozumn

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Stephanie Field, Jeff Crane, Patti-Jean Naylor and Viviene Temple

higher locomotor proficiency than boys do ( Barnett et al., 2015 ; LeGear et al., 2012 ; Liong et al., 2015 ; Robinson, 2011 ), recent review evidence suggests that the sex of a child is not associated with locomotor skill proficiency ( Barnett, Lai, et al., 2016 ). While the relationship between

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during Arm Movements Using a Model of the Human Arm Sybert Stroeve * 4 1999 3 2 158 185 10.1123/mcj.3.2.158 How Locomotor Parameters Adapt to Gravity and Body Structure Changes during Gait Development in Children Yvon Brenière * 4 1999 3 2 186 204 10.1123/mcj.3.2.186 Cross-Education of Muscle

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* Lesley J. White * 7 2012 29 3 224 242 10.1123/apaq.29.3.224 Barriers to Physical Activity for People With Long-Term Neurological Conditions: A Review Study Hilda F. Mulligan * Leigh A. Hale * Lisa Whitehead * G. David Baxter * 7 2012 29 3 243 265 10.1123/apaq.29.3.243 Locomotor Tests Predict

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Research Information Processing and Constraints-based Views of Skill Acquisition: Divergent or Complementary? Greg Anson * Digby Elliott * Keith Davids * 7 2005 9 3 217 241 10.1123/mcj.9.3.217 The Negotiation of Stationary and Moving Obstructions during Walking: Anticipatory Locomotor

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Guilherme M. Cesar, Rebecca Lewthwaite and Susan M. Sigward

-related differences in performance of athletic locomotor tasks have been observed between pre-pubertal children and young adults. During running and cutting tasks, children re-direct their momentum using larger impact forces (i.e., body weight-normalized ground reaction forces) than young adults ( Sigward, Pollard

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Ryan D. Burns, Youngwon Kim, Wonwoo Byun and Timothy A. Brusseau

Fundamental gross motor skills facilitate physical health, well-being, and performance in activities of daily living for the developing child. 1 , 2 Fundamental gross motor skills manifest from rudimentary phases of infancy to complicated locomotor and manipulative movements and serve as building