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Andrew A. Dingley, David B. Pyne and Brendan Burkett

Purpose:

To characterize relationships between propulsion, anthropometry, and performance in Paralympic swimming.

Methods:

A cross-sectional study of swimmers (13 male, 15 female) age 20.5 ± 4.4 y was conducted. Subject locomotor categorizations were no physical disability (n = 8, classes S13–S14) and low-severity (n = 11, classes S9–S10) or midseverity disability (n = 9, classes S6–S8). Full anthropometric profiles estimated muscle mass and body fat, a bilateral swim-bench ergometer quantified upper-body power production, and 100-m time trials quantified swimming performance.

Results:

Correlations between ergometer mean power and swimming performance increased with degree of physical disability (low-severity male r = .65, ±0.56, and female r = .68, ±0.64; midseverity, r = .87, ±0.41, and r = .79, ±0.75). The female midseverity group showed nearperfect (positive) relationships for taller swimmers’ (with a greater muscle mass and longer arm span) swimming faster, while for female no- and low-severity-disability groups, greater muscle mass was associated with slower velocity (r = .78, ±0.43, and r = .65, ±0.66). This was supported with lighter females (with less frontal surface area) in the low-severity group being faster (r = .94, ±0.24). In a gender contrast, low-severity males with less muscle mass (r = -.64, ±0.56), high skinfolds (r = .78, ±0.43), a longer arm span (r = .58, ±0.60) or smaller frontal surface area (r = -.93, ±0.19) were detrimental to swimming-velocity production.

Conclusion:

Low-severity male and midseverity female Paralympic swimmers should be encouraged to develop muscle mass and upper-body power to enhance swimming performance. The generalized anthropometric measures appear to be a secondary consideration for coaches.

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Mohamed Ali Nabli, Nidhal Ben Abdelkrim, Imed Jabri, Tahar Batikh, Carlo Castagna and Karim Chamari

Purpose:

To examine the relation between game performance, physiological responses, and field-test results in Tunisian basketball referees.

Methods:

Computerized time–motion analysis, heart rate (HR), and blood lactate concentration [La] were measured in 15 referees during 8 competitive games (under-19-y-old Tunisian league). Referees also performed a repeated-sprint test (RSA), Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (YYIRTL1), agility T-test, and 30-m sprint with 10-m lap time. Computerized video analysis determined the time spent in 5 locomotor activities (standing, walking, jogging, running, and sprint), then grouped in high-, moderate-, and low-intensity activities (HIAs, MIAs, and LIAs, respectively).

Results:

YYIRTL1 performance correlated with (1) total distance covered during the 4th quarter (r = .52, P = .04) and (2) distance covered in LIA during all game periods (P < .05). Both distance covered and time spent in MIA during the 1st quarter were negatively correlated with the YYIRTL1 performance (r = –.53, P = .035; r = –.67, P = .004, respectively). A negative correlation was found between distance covered at HIA during the 2nd half (3rd quarter + 4th quarter) and fatigue index of the RSA test (r = –.54, P = .029). Mean HR (expressed as %HRpeak) during all game periods was correlated with YYIRTL1 performance (.61 ≤ r < .67, P < .01).

Conclusions:

This study showed that (1) the YYIRTL1 performance is a moderate predictor of game physical performance in U-19 basketball referees and (2) referees’ RSA correlates with the amount of HIA performed during the 2nd half, which represents the ability to keep up with play.

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Ali Brian, Sally Taunton, Lauren J. Lieberman, Pamela Haibach-Beach, John Foley and Sara Santarossa

Fundamental motor skills (FMS) are the building blocks to more complex movement patterns ( Clark & Metcalfe, 2002 ). FMS are often subdivided into include object control (now referred to in the Test of Gross Motor Development-3 [TGMD-3] as ball skills) and locomotor skills ( Gallahue, Ozumn

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Stephanie Field, Jeff Crane, Patti-Jean Naylor and Viviene Temple

higher locomotor proficiency than boys do ( Barnett et al., 2015 ; LeGear et al., 2012 ; Liong et al., 2015 ; Robinson, 2011 ), recent review evidence suggests that the sex of a child is not associated with locomotor skill proficiency ( Barnett, Lai, et al., 2016 ). While the relationship between

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Guilherme M. Cesar, Rebecca Lewthwaite and Susan M. Sigward

-related differences in performance of athletic locomotor tasks have been observed between pre-pubertal children and young adults. During running and cutting tasks, children re-direct their momentum using larger impact forces (i.e., body weight-normalized ground reaction forces) than young adults ( Sigward, Pollard

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Steven van Andel, Michael H. Cole and Gert-Jan Pepping

target on the ground known as locomotor pointing ( Lee, Lishman, & Thomson, 1982 ). The mechanisms of locomotor pointing have been established in research concerning the long jump approach ( De Rugy, Montagne, Buekers, & Laurent, 2000 ; De Rugy, Taga, Montagne, Buekers, & Laurent, 2002 ; Lee et

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Ryan D. Burns, Youngwon Kim, Wonwoo Byun and Timothy A. Brusseau

Fundamental gross motor skills facilitate physical health, well-being, and performance in activities of daily living for the developing child. 1 , 2 Fundamental gross motor skills manifest from rudimentary phases of infancy to complicated locomotor and manipulative movements and serve as building

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Vítor Pires Lopes, Linda Saraiva, Celina Gonçalves and Luis P. Rodrigues

; Barnett, Morgan, van Beurden, & Beard, 2008 ; Goodway & Rudisill, 1997 ; LeGear et al., 2012 ; Robinson, 2011 ). However, boys’ locomotor proficiency has been reported as lower ( Barnett et al., 2008 ; van Beurden, Zask, Barnett, & Dietrich, 2002 ), similar ( Goodway & Rudisill, 1997 ), higher

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Ross D. Neville, Fergal Lyons, Brendan Doyle and Kimberley D. Lakes

manipulation—or, more formally, locomotor (i.e., running, skipping, galloping, sliding, hoping, bounding) and object-control (i.e., catching, throwing, rolling, kicking, bouncing, balancing, striking) skills ( Ulrich, 2000 ). Failure to develop proficiency in one or more of these areas is known to severely

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Viviene A. Temple, Dawn L. Lefebvre, Stephanie C. Field, Jeff R. Crane, Beverly Smith and Patti-Jean Naylor

Motor Development (TGMD-2; Ulrich, 2000 ) was used to assess the locomotor (run, hop, slide, leap, gallop, and horizontal jump) and object control (strike, catch, dribble, throw, kick, and underhand roll) skills of the children and to provide an estimate of each child’s current level of gross motor