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Jared A. Bailey, Paul B. Gastin, Luke Mackey and Dan B. Dwyer

Context:

Most previous investigations of player load in netball have used subjective methodologies, with few using objective methodologies. While all studies report differences in player activities or total load between playing positions, it is unclear how the differences in player activity explain differences in positional load.

Purpose:

To objectively quantify the load associated with typical activities for all positions in elite netball.

Methods:

The player load of all playing positions in an elite netball team was measured during matches using wearable accelerometers. Video recordings of the matches were also analyzed to record the start time and duration of 13 commonly reported netball activities. The load associated with each activity was determined by time-aligning both data sets (load and activity).

Results:

Off-ball guarding produced the highest player load per instance, while jogging produced the greatest player load per match. Nonlocomotor activities contributed least to total match load for attacking positions (goal shooter [GS], goal attack [GA], and wing attack [WA]) and most for defending positions (goalkeeper [GK], goal defense [GD], and wing defense [WD]). Specifically, centers (Cs) produced the greatest jogging load, WA and WD accumulated the greatest running load, and GS and WA accumulated the greatest shuffling load. WD and Cs accumulated the greatest guarding load, while WD and GK accumulated the greatest off-ball guarding load.

Conclusions:

All positions exhibited different contributions from locomotor and nonlocomotor activities toward total match load. In addition, the same activity can have different contributions toward total match load, depending on the position. This has implications for future design and implementation of position-specific training programs.

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Mohamed Ali Nabli, Nidhal Ben Abdelkrim, Imed Jabri, Tahar Batikh, Carlo Castagna and Karim Chamari

Purpose:

To examine the relation between game performance, physiological responses, and field-test results in Tunisian basketball referees.

Methods:

Computerized time–motion analysis, heart rate (HR), and blood lactate concentration [La] were measured in 15 referees during 8 competitive games (under-19-y-old Tunisian league). Referees also performed a repeated-sprint test (RSA), Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (YYIRTL1), agility T-test, and 30-m sprint with 10-m lap time. Computerized video analysis determined the time spent in 5 locomotor activities (standing, walking, jogging, running, and sprint), then grouped in high-, moderate-, and low-intensity activities (HIAs, MIAs, and LIAs, respectively).

Results:

YYIRTL1 performance correlated with (1) total distance covered during the 4th quarter (r = .52, P = .04) and (2) distance covered in LIA during all game periods (P < .05). Both distance covered and time spent in MIA during the 1st quarter were negatively correlated with the YYIRTL1 performance (r = –.53, P = .035; r = –.67, P = .004, respectively). A negative correlation was found between distance covered at HIA during the 2nd half (3rd quarter + 4th quarter) and fatigue index of the RSA test (r = –.54, P = .029). Mean HR (expressed as %HRpeak) during all game periods was correlated with YYIRTL1 performance (.61 ≤ r < .67, P < .01).

Conclusions:

This study showed that (1) the YYIRTL1 performance is a moderate predictor of game physical performance in U-19 basketball referees and (2) referees’ RSA correlates with the amount of HIA performed during the 2nd half, which represents the ability to keep up with play.

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* Arthur W. English * 10 1997 1 4 340 353 10.1123/mcj.1.4.340 Locomotor Patterns Elicited by Electrical Stimulation of the Brain Stem in the Mudpuppy Mark L. Shik * 10 1997 1 4 354 368 10.1123/mcj.1.4.354 mcj Motor Control 1087-1640 1543-2696 1997 1 4 10.1123/mcj.1997.1.issue-4 Point of View 10

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Ali Brian, Sally Taunton, Lauren J. Lieberman, Pamela Haibach-Beach, John Foley and Sara Santarossa

Fundamental motor skills (FMS) are the building blocks to more complex movement patterns ( Clark & Metcalfe, 2002 ). FMS are often subdivided into include object control (now referred to in the Test of Gross Motor Development-3 [TGMD-3] as ball skills) and locomotor skills ( Gallahue, Ozumn

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Stephanie Field, Jeff Crane, Patti-Jean Naylor and Viviene Temple

higher locomotor proficiency than boys do ( Barnett et al., 2015 ; LeGear et al., 2012 ; Liong et al., 2015 ; Robinson, 2011 ), recent review evidence suggests that the sex of a child is not associated with locomotor skill proficiency ( Barnett, Lai, et al., 2016 ). While the relationship between

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* Lesley J. White * 7 2012 29 3 224 242 10.1123/apaq.29.3.224 Barriers to Physical Activity for People With Long-Term Neurological Conditions: A Review Study Hilda F. Mulligan * Leigh A. Hale * Lisa Whitehead * G. David Baxter * 7 2012 29 3 243 265 10.1123/apaq.29.3.243 Locomotor Tests Predict

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during Arm Movements Using a Model of the Human Arm Sybert Stroeve * 4 1999 3 2 158 185 10.1123/mcj.3.2.158 How Locomotor Parameters Adapt to Gravity and Body Structure Changes during Gait Development in Children Yvon Brenière * 4 1999 3 2 186 204 10.1123/mcj.3.2.186 Cross-Education of Muscle

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Research Information Processing and Constraints-based Views of Skill Acquisition: Divergent or Complementary? Greg Anson * Digby Elliott * Keith Davids * 7 2005 9 3 217 241 10.1123/mcj.9.3.217 The Negotiation of Stationary and Moving Obstructions during Walking: Anticipatory Locomotor

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Guilherme M. Cesar, Rebecca Lewthwaite and Susan M. Sigward

-related differences in performance of athletic locomotor tasks have been observed between pre-pubertal children and young adults. During running and cutting tasks, children re-direct their momentum using larger impact forces (i.e., body weight-normalized ground reaction forces) than young adults ( Sigward, Pollard

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Steven van Andel, Michael H. Cole and Gert-Jan Pepping

target on the ground known as locomotor pointing ( Lee, Lishman, & Thomson, 1982 ). The mechanisms of locomotor pointing have been established in research concerning the long jump approach ( De Rugy, Montagne, Buekers, & Laurent, 2000 ; De Rugy, Taga, Montagne, Buekers, & Laurent, 2002 ; Lee et