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Moshe Semyonov

This paper challenges the popular argument that sport is an effective channel for upward mobility, especially for ethnic minorities. My study of retired professional soccer players in Israel establishes the following findings: First, members of the subordinate ethnic group are disadvantaged in attainment of status not only in schools and labor markets but also in and via sport. Second, a professional career in sport does not intervene between background variables and later occupational attainment. Third, both ethnicity and educational level are the most significant determinants of postretirement occupational attainment; higher education and higher ethnic status improve opportunities for later occupational success. On the basis of these findings it is suggested that the same rules of inequality that push individuals to seek alternative routes of mobility, such as professional sport, continue to operate in and beyond sport.

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Paul D. Loprinzi

Background:

We have a limited understanding of the physical activity (PA) and sedentary levels among individuals at risk and not at risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which was the purpose of this study.

Methods:

Data from the 2003–2004 NHANES were used, from which 3015 participants were evaluated with 416 indicating a family history of AD. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were assessed via accelerometry with individuals at risk for AD self-reporting a family history of AD.

Results:

For the entire sample, those at risk for AD engaged in more sedentary behavior than those not at risk (494.9 vs. 477.9 min/day, P = .03, respectively). Similarly, those at risk for AD engaged in less total MVPA than those not at risk (22.4 vs. 24.3 min/day, P = .05, respectively). Results were also significant for various subgroups at risk for AD.

Conclusion:

Despite the beneficial effects of PA in preventing AD and prolonging the survival of AD, adults at risk for AD tend to engage in more sedentary behavior and less PA than those not at risk for AD. This finding even persisted among minorities (Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks) who are already at an increased risk of developing AD.

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Hugh Millward, Jamie E. L. Spinney and Darren Scott

Background:

This study employs national time-diary data to evaluate how much aerobic activity Canadians engage in on a daily basis, how that activity is apportioned by activity domain, and how subgroups within the population vary in their aerobic attainment.

Methods:

The study employs time-use data from the 2010 General Social Survey of Canada, for 15,390 respondents aged 15 and older. To estimate effort levels, the authors harmonized survey codes with those in the Compendium of Physical Activities. Aerobic activity was defined as moderate or vigorous effort at 3.5 Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) or higher.

Results:

Among the 4 activity domains, aerobic participation is highest in leisure activities, followed by chores, paid work, and active transportation (AT). Only a minority (42%) of respondents recorded at least 20 mins/day of aerobic activity. Aerobic totals were particularly low for women and those in poor or fair health, and low for students, 15- to 24-year-olds, and those residing in Quebec, Ontario, and larger cities.

Conclusions:

The majority of Canadian adults are failing to meet recommended aerobic activity levels. However, there is considerable opportunity to increase aerobic participation for some groups, particularly women and young adults, especially in the leisure and AT domains.

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Robert Chappell, Daniel Burdsey and Kate Collinson

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the ‘race’ and ethnicity of female netball players in the First and Second Division of the English National Netball League during the 1999/2000 season. The secondary purpose was to compare the ethnicity of players to playing position. Consequently, this research will contribute to a better understanding of female ethnic participation in English netball, and also provide data that will facilitate a comparative analysis of participation rates by ethnic minorities in other sports in England, and with similar research on ethnicity in other countries. Data were collated from team rosters of all teams comprising the First and Second Divisions of the English National Netball League in the 1999/2000 season. The research was conducted over a season, in order to observe all of the teams, and to note the position of each player in the team. The ‘race’ and ethnicity of players (̲N = 150) was established from individual players by administering a self-definition questionnaire at the end of each observed match.

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Robert H. Chappell and Costas I. Karageorghis

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the ethnic and racial composition of male and female basketball players in the First Division of the English National Basketball League during the 1996/97 season. The secondary purpose was to compare the racial composition of players by playing position. Finally, a subsidiary purpose was to describe the racial and gender composition of coaches and assistant coaches in the women’s National Basketball League. Data were collated from team rosters of all teams comprising the First Division of the women’s and men’s National Basketball League in the 1996/97 season. The ethnic and racial designation of players (N = 270) and coaches (N = 23) was established from information supplied by each club or from individual players. There were significant differences in participation rates for British male and female players; there was an over-representation of black females in the forward position, and an over-representation of white male coaches in women’s teams. The present findings reflect the limited participation rates of females in general, and more specifically, the limited participation rates of women from ethnic minority groups.

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Ross E. Andersen, Carlos J. Crespo, Shawn C. Franckowiak and Jeremy D. Walston

Hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) and physical activity are both related to aging and health. U.S. minorities are more likely to be inactive and less likely to initiate HRT than are non-Hispanic White women. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship of race and HRT use with physical inactivity among older women (60+ years). The authors used data from 3,479 women who had participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), conducted in 1988-1994. NHANES III included an in-person interview and a medical examination. The prevalence of physical inactivity among women who reported ever having used HRT was 28.5% (CI 22.9–34.1%), compared with 40.0% (CI 35.9–44.1%) among those who had never used HRT. Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women reported higher levels of inactivity than did non-Hispanic White women across HRT-use categories. To promote successful aging, physicians should educate postmenopausal women on the possible health benefits of HRT combined with an active lifestyle.

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Dana Sirota, Dodi Meyer, Andres Nieto, Arlen Zamula, Melissa Stockwell and Evelyn Berger-Jenkins

Background:

School-based physical activity programs can reach large populations of at-risk children however evidence for the sustainability of healthy behaviors as a result of these programs is mixed. Healthy Schools Healthy Families (HSHF) is a physical activity and nutrition program for elementary students in a predominantly minority community. The program includes short teacher led classroom-based physical activities, also known as Transition Exercises (TE). Our aim was to assess whether TE was associated with children’s reported recreational physical activity outside of school.

Methods:

We surveyed HSHF students in grade 5 (n = 383) about their recreational physical activity at the start and end of the school year. Multivariable analysis was used to determine what factors including TE contributed to their reported activity.

Results:

Students were predominantly Hispanic with a mean age of 10 ± .03. There was an increase in reported recreational physical activity from the start to the end of the school year (73.6% to 82.4%, P < .05). Students who participated in more TE had a 2.75 times greater odds of reporting participation in recreational activity than students who participated in less TE.

Conclusions:

For students in HSHF, TE was significantly associated with an increase in recreational physical activity.

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Robert L. Newton, Hongmei Han, Melinda Sothern, Corby K. Martin, Larry S. Webber and Donald A. Williamson

Background:

To determine if there are differences in time spent in physical activity and sedentary behavior between rural African American and Caucasian children.

Methods:

Children wore accelerometers for 3 weekdays. The students were randomly selected from a larger sample of children participating in a weight gain prevention intervention. Usable data were obtained from 272 of the 310 students who agreed to participate. The outcome data included counts per minute (CPM), time spent in moderate to vigorous (MVPA), light (LPA), and sedentary (SED) activity. The equation and cutoff used to analyze national accelerometry data were used for the current study.

Results:

The sample had an average age of 10.4 (1.1) years and 76% were African American. Lower SES African Americans had more CPM (P = .012) and spent more time in MVPA (P = .008) compared with middle SES African American and lower SES Caucasian children. Lower SES African American children also spent fewer minutes in SED activity (P = .044) compared with middle SES African American children.

Conclusions:

These findings support recent results that also used objective activity measures. Children appeared less active and more sedentary than a national sample, warranting interventions in minority and rural populations.

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Nick Garrett, Philip J. Schluter and Grant Schofield

Background:

A minority of adults in developed countries engage in sufficient physical activity (PA) to achieve health benefits. This study aims to identify modifiable perceived resources and barriers to PA among New Zealand adults.

Methods:

Secondary analysis of a 2003 nationally representative cross-sectional mail survey, stratified by region, age, and ethnicity, and analyzed utilizing ordinal logistic regression.

Results:

Overall, n = 8038 adults responded to the survey, of whom 49% met updated guidelines for sufficient PA. Perceived accessibility of local resources was associated with PA; however, for some resources there was more awareness among individuals whose predominant activity was not commonly associated with that resource (eg, health clubs and walkers). Perceived local environmental barriers demonstrated negative (steep hills, crime, dogs) and positive (unmaintained footpaths) associations. The absence of perceived environmental barriers was strongly associated with increased activity, suggesting the number of barriers may be a critical factor.

Conclusion:

Complex relationships between perceptions of local environments and activity patterns among adults were found. Although complex, these results demonstrate positive associations between awareness of resources and perceived lack of barriers with being sufficiently physically active for health. Therefore, investments in provision and/or promotion of local resources have the potential to enable active healthy communities.

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Lisa A. Cadmus Bertram, Gina Chung, Herbert Yu, Peter Salovey and Melinda Irwin

Background:

The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using a tumor registry to recruit newly diagnosed survivors into a randomized controlled exercise trial and to discuss issues related to this recruitment strategy.

Methods:

A tumor registry-based rapid ascertainment system was used to recruit breast cancer survivors into a 6-month home-based, telephone-administered intervention of moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise or a usual care group.

Results:

468 newly diagnosed cases were identified. Of these, 50 women (15.4% of those for which screening calls were made) were enrolled in the study. Women were randomized, on average, 11 weeks after diagnosis (SD = 4.8). Sixty-four percent were randomized before beginning treatment or within the first week of treatment. Time required to obtain physician consent was the primary determinant of diagnosis-to-randomization latency. Enrolled women were more likely than nonenrolled women to be non-Hispanic White and to have a college degree (P < .05).

Conclusion:

Tumor registries present a feasible means of recruiting breast cancer survivors before or early in adjuvant treatment. The success of recruiting survivors promptly after diagnosis is largely dependent on ability to rapidly obtain physician consent. Specific effort is needed to counteract self-selection effects that may lead to under-representation of minorities.