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Kathleen Benjamin, Nancy Edwards and Wenda Caswell

In 2006, the authors conducted a multisite qualitative study in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada to examine organizational and environmental factors that influence physical activity for long-term-care (LTC) residents. The article describes the results of interviews with 9 administrators from nonprofit and for-profit LTC facilities. A content analysis revealed that despite having positive views about the value of physical activity, the administrators encountered challenges related to funding, human resources, and the built (physical) environment. The intersection of staffing issues and challenges in the built environment created less than optimal conditions for physical activity programs. Findings suggest that until there are adequate human and financial resources, it will be difficult to implement evidence-informed physical activity programs for residents in LTC settings in Ontario. A review of provincial LTC standards for physical activity program requirements and the built environment is warranted.

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Brian C. Martinson, A. Lauren Crain, Nancy E. Sherwood, Marcia G. Hayes, Nicolaas P. Pronk and Patrick J. O’Connor

Objective:

To assess the representativeness of older adults recruited to a physical activity maintenance RCT by conducting sequential comparisons to characterize study sample composition changes occurring between sampling frame construction and study enrollment.

Method:

Study subjects (N = 1049) were 50 to 70 year old men and women who had increased physical activity within the past year recruited from a Midwestern managed care organization.

Results:

Those responding to an initial mailed screener differed on demographic, behavioral, and SES characteristics from those not responding. Compared with ineligibles, eligible individuals were significantly younger, more highly educated, and more likely to report improved health in the prior year. Compared with eligible individuals who did not enroll, enrollees had generally higher education and income.

Conclusions:

Physical activity promotion programs in older adults may have limited reach and substantial volunteer bias. Additional strategies to increase the reach of physical activity interventions into the target population are needed.

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Gerrit Jan van Ingen Schenau, Maarten F. Bobbert and Arnold de Haan

This target article addresses the role of storage and reutilization of elastic energy in stretch-shortening cycles. It is argued that for discrete movements such as the vertical jump, elastic energy does not explain the work enhancement due to the prestretch. This enhancement seems to occur because the prestretch allows muscles to develop a high level of active state and force before starting to shorten. For cyclic movements in which stretch-shortening cycles occur repetitively, some authors have claimed that elastic energy enhances mechanical efficiency. In the current article it is demonstrated that this claim is often based on disputable concepts such as the efficiency of positive work or absolute work, and it is argued that elastic energy cannot affect mechanical efficiency simply because this energy is not related to the conversion of metabolic energy into mechanical energy. A comparison of work and efficiency measures obtained at different levels of organization reveals that there is in fact no decisive evidence to either support or reject the claim that the stretch-shortening cycle enhances muscle efficiency. These explorations lead to the conclusion that the body of knowledge about the mechanics and energetics of the stretch-shortening cycle is in fact quite lean. A major challenge is to bridge the gap between knowledge obtained at different levels of organization, with the ultimate purpose of understanding how the intrinsic properties of muscles manifest themselves under in-vivo-like conditions and how they are exploited in whole-body activities such as running. To achieve this purpose, a close cooperation is required between muscle physiologists and human movement scientists performing inverse and forward dynamic simulation studies of whole-body exercises.

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Karen S. Meaney and Sonya L. Armstrong

Bullying is a critical issue in society that adversely affects individuals, organizations, and workplaces ( Namie, 2003 ). Bullies engage in deliberate and long-term acts of aggression, harassment, intimidation, and humiliation directed at vulnerable individuals. Victims of bullying may experience

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Edward Hebert

relationships, opportunity) affect psychological variables such as job satisfaction, morale, and organizational commitment, which in turn influence and predict decisions to persist in a workplace or seek employment elsewhere. Johnsrud and colleagues ( Johnsrud & Des Jarlais, 1994 ; Johnsrud & Heck, 1994

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Chevelle M.A. Davis, Tetine L. Sentell, Juliana Fernandes de Souza Barbosa, Alban Ylli, Carmen-Lucia Curcio and Catherine M. Pirkle

By 2050, the global population of individuals aged 60 years and older (“older adults”) is projected to reach two billion, with an estimated 80% of all older people living in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC; World Health Organization [WHO], 2018 ). Middle-income countries (MIC)—defined as

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Amanda Ebert and Donna L. Goodwin

( Karkaletsi, Skordilis, Evaggelinou, Grammatopoulou, & Spanaki, 2012 ; Peers, 2018 ; Standal, 2008 ; Standal, Nyquist, & Mong, 2018 ). For APA professionals in inclusive service delivery positions, the sundry of multidisciplinary influences creates a landscape composed of diverse personnel, organizational

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Tarkeshwar Singh, Vladimir M. Zatsiorsky and Mark L. Latash

The effects of muscle fatigue on the stability of precision grasps are not well known. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of exercise-induced fatigue of a digit on prehension synergies in a static precision grasp. One group of participants performed the fatiguing exercise using the thumb (group-thumb) and the second group performed the exercise using the index finger (group-index). Grasp force and load-resisting force-stabilizing synergies were weaker during fatigue for group-thumb and showed no significant change for group-index. These results indicate that fatiguing the thumb compromises the stability of the precision grasp more than when the index finger is fatigued. Our results support the idea of hierarchical organization of prehension control. We proffer an explanation of our results based on two control constructs: a) Principle of superposition. This principle states that prehension can be viewed as a superposition of two independent processes controlling the slip and the tilt of the object respectively; and b) The referent configuration hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, the neural control of actions is associated with defining a set of referent values for task-related coordinates (given an external force field) defined as the referent configuration.

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Enrique Garcia Bengoechea, Francisco Ruiz Juan and Paula Louise Bush

Background:

Worldwide, there is a growing concern with adolescents’ low levels of physical activity (PA). We used a comprehensive social ecological framework to uncover factors associated with leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among adolescents from southeastern Spain.

Methods:

A population-based sample of 3249 adolescents aged 12–17 participated in a school-based survey in 2006. Potential correlates of participation in and level of LTPA were assessed through self-report. LTPA levels were also self-reported. We used gender-stratified logistic regression models to examine the associations among the variables of interest.

Results:

Consistent with a social ecological perspective, analyses revealed several factors, corresponding to different levels of organization (demographic, biological, psychological, behavioral, social) and behavioral settings (family, peer group, school), significantly associated with LTPA. Some of these factors varied as a function of gender and depending on whether the outcome considered was nonparticipation vs. participation in LTPA or high vs. low level of involvement among participants. Overall, the findings highlight the role of health-related participation motives, significant others’ attitudes toward PA, and grade in physical education as correlates of LTPA in this sample.

Conclusions:

Continued research is necessary to understand the complex interplay of factors and settings associated with adolescent LTPA and the role of gender.

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Katherine A. Skala, Andrew E. Springer, Shreela V. Sharma, Deanna M. Hoelscher and Steven H. Kelder

Background:

Physical education (PE) classes provide opportunities for children to be active. This study examined the associations between specific environmental characteristics (teacher characteristics; class size, duration and location; and lesson context) and elementary school-aged children’s moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) during PE.

Methods:

Environmental characteristics and student activity levels were measured in 211 third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade PE classes in 74 Texas public schools using SOFIT direct observation.

Results:

Students engaged in less than half their PE class time in MVPA (38%), while approximately 25% of class time was spent in classroom management. Percent time in MVPA was significantly higher in outdoor classes compared with indoors (41.4% vs. 36.1%, P = .037). Larger (P = .044) and longer (P = .001) classes were negatively associated with percentage of MVPA and positively correlated with time spent in management (P < .001).

Conclusions:

Findings suggest that children’s activity may be influenced by environmental factors such as class size, location, and lesson contexts. These findings hold important policy implications for PE class organization and the need for strategies that maximize children’s MVPA. Further research is needed to test the causal association of these factors with student MVPA.