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TaeYeong Kim, JaeHyuk Lee, SeJun Oh, Seungmin Kim and BumChul Yoon

, symmetrically rhythmic, and transferred from the back to the rider’s pelvis. The movement practice of a rider on horseback is associated with greater improvements in muscle strength 8 and activation, 9 and also perceived mental and emotional status. 10 However, the effects of horseback riding exercise are

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Julia Freedman Silvernail, Richard E.A. van Emmerik, Katherine Boyer, Michael A. Busa and Joseph Hamill

JF , Van Emmerik RE , Hamill J . Low back pain status affects pelvis–trunk coordination and variability during walking and running . Clin Biomech . 2011 ; 26 ( 6 ): 572 – 578 . doi:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2010.11.012 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2010.11.012 4. Needham R , Naemi R , Chockalingam

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Gustavo Ramos Dalla Bernardina, Tony Monnet, Heber Teixeira Pinto, Ricardo Machado Leite de Barros, Pietro Cerveri and Amanda Piaia Silvatti

-selected speed. Four markers, located at the anterior and posterior superior iliac spines, accounted for pelvis kinematics. For both lower limbs, 3 markers, placed at femur greater trochanter, femur lateral epicondyle, and fibula lateral malleolus, described the flexion–extension angle of the knee. For the

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Hardeep Singh, Mark Lee, Matthew J. Solomito, Christian Merrill and Carl Nissen

to maximum external rotation, ball release, and then ends at maximum internal rotation. GH indicates glenohumeral. The trunk was defined using the Vicon Plug-in Gait marker configuration, which utilizes 4 markers to construct the trunk segment, as described by Solomito et al. 18 The pelvis was

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Joseph B. Lesnak, Dillon T. Anderson, Brooke E. Farmer, Dimitrios Katsavelis and Terry L. Grindstaff

peak torque was used for data analysis. Figure 1 Participants performed testing on an isokinetic dynamometer with hips flexed to 85° and knees flexed to 90.° Straps were used to secure the chest and pelvis, and a padded ankle strap was placed 5 cm proximal to the distal aspect of the lateral malleolus

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Angélica Ginés-Díaz, María Teresa Martínez-Romero, Antonio Cejudo, Alba Aparicio-Sarmiento and Pilar Sainz de Baranda

the knees, hips, and pelvis bring the lumbar spine into a flatter alignment in which it is more vulnerable to morphological stress damage. 18 , 19 On the other hand, dressage riders use long stirrups that allow the rider to assume an upright position. In this way, lumbar lordosis remains in a natural

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Marie Lund Ohlsson, Jonas Danvind and L. Joakim Holmberg

of the spinal column is an inappropriate posture because it is related to other risk factors. For example, flexion of the spinal column while lifting causes high anterior shear force in the intervertebral discs. 5 Also, sitting causes the pelvis to tilt backward and the spine to flex slightly

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Benjamin R. Wilson, Kaley E. Robertson, Jeremy M. Burnham, Michael C. Yonz, Mary Lloyd Ireland and Brian Noehren

injury risk. The Y Balance Test requires the subject to be able to control his or her body while maintaining a single-leg stance. Potentially, this requires adequate hip girdle strength to maintain stability of the pelvis and trunk throughout the test. Although relationships have been reported between

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Sajad Bagherian, Khodayar Ghasempoor, Nader Rahnama and Erik A. Wikstrom

injury risk in male football players, 9 female college athletes, 10 and male military candidates. 11 The lateral step-down (LSD) test can be used to rate the quality of movement based on the alignment of the trunk, pelvis, and knee 12 with scores ranging from 0 to 6. 13 The Y balance test (YBT) was

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Christopher M. Saliba, Allison L. Clouthier, Scott C.E. Brandon, Michael J. Rainbow and Kevin J. Deluzio

) Walking speed, m/s 1.25 (0.19) 1.17 (0.18) 1.34 (0.16) A set of sixty-four 12.7-mm diameter retroreflective markers were adhered to participants’ feet, legs, pelvis, torso, head, and arms to define anatomical landmarks and track segment motion. 22 Participants performed 8 overground walking trials across