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Marie Lund Ohlsson, Jonas Danvind and L. Joakim Holmberg

of the spinal column is an inappropriate posture because it is related to other risk factors. For example, flexion of the spinal column while lifting causes high anterior shear force in the intervertebral discs. 5 Also, sitting causes the pelvis to tilt backward and the spine to flex slightly

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Angélica Ginés-Díaz, María Teresa Martínez-Romero, Antonio Cejudo, Alba Aparicio-Sarmiento and Pilar Sainz de Baranda

the knees, hips, and pelvis bring the lumbar spine into a flatter alignment in which it is more vulnerable to morphological stress damage. 18 , 19 On the other hand, dressage riders use long stirrups that allow the rider to assume an upright position. In this way, lumbar lordosis remains in a natural

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Christopher M. Saliba, Allison L. Clouthier, Scott C.E. Brandon, Michael J. Rainbow and Kevin J. Deluzio

) Walking speed, m/s 1.25 (0.19) 1.17 (0.18) 1.34 (0.16) A set of sixty-four 12.7-mm diameter retroreflective markers were adhered to participants’ feet, legs, pelvis, torso, head, and arms to define anatomical landmarks and track segment motion. 22 Participants performed 8 overground walking trials across

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Whitney Williams and Noelle M. Selkow

so when imbalances occur, alterations in mechanical alignment and load affect the kinetic chain. For example, muscle tightness of the hamstrings pulls the ipsilateral innominate bone of the pelvis posteriorly, shortening the abdominal muscles. In return, the erector spinae and hip flexors become

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Marissa C. Gradoz, Lauren E. Bauer, Terry L. Grindstaff and Jennifer J. Bagwell

a barrier to further movement 11 or compensation with further movement as determined by the examiner. It was expected that the examiner would detect a capsular end feel. Visual observation was used to detect compensations. If participants demonstrated lateral trunk or pelvis obliquity or trunk

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Danielle Nesbitt, Sergio Molina, Ryan Sacko, Leah E. Robinson, Ali Brian and David Stodden

Categories for Task of Rising from a Supine to a Standing Position (Adapted from Marsala & VanSant, 1998 ; Vansant, 1988a , 1988b ) Upper Extremity Movement Patterns  Level 1 Push and reach to bilateral push. One hand is placed on the support surface beside the pelvis. The other arm reaches across the

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Katie A. Conway, Randall G. Bissette and Jason R. Franz

displacement of the subjects’ pelvis. FCU indicates functional capacity utilized. Reduced mechanical output of the plantarflexor muscles during push-off, and thus reduced propulsive forces, are hallmark biomechanical features of elderly gait as well as gait pathology, such as that following a stroke. 2 , 3

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Abbigail Ristow, Matthew Besch, Drew Rutherford and Thomas W. Kernozek

Wisconsin–La Crosse. Procedures Prior to any activity, 47 reflective markers were placed on each participant. 31 These markers were adhered to tight fitting clothing or onto the participant’s skin on their head, trunk, pelvis, and upper-extremities and lower-extremities. Marker placements included 4

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Gakuto Kitamura, Hiroshige Tateuchi and Noriaki Ichihashi

that the tightness of the hip-flexor muscle can reduce hip extension that create a lumbar hyperextension and pelvic anterior tilt in various movements in water. 6 Pelvic anterior tilting can make the pelvis at a lower position than normal in water. 6 A study examined the swimmers experiencing LBP and

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Lukas D. Linde, Jessica Archibald, Eve C. Lampert and John Z. Srbely

placed on the trunk, pelvis, right thigh, right shank, and right foot (Figure  1 ) with imaginary markers digitized at appropriate anatomical landmarks, including coracoid processes, xiphoid process, anterior superior iliac spines, posterior superior iliac spines, greater trochanters, right femoral