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Joseph B. Lesnak, Dillon T. Anderson, Brooke E. Farmer, Dimitrios Katsavelis and Terry L. Grindstaff

peak torque was used for data analysis. Figure 1 Participants performed testing on an isokinetic dynamometer with hips flexed to 85° and knees flexed to 90.° Straps were used to secure the chest and pelvis, and a padded ankle strap was placed 5 cm proximal to the distal aspect of the lateral malleolus

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Angélica Ginés-Díaz, María Teresa Martínez-Romero, Antonio Cejudo, Alba Aparicio-Sarmiento and Pilar Sainz de Baranda

the knees, hips, and pelvis bring the lumbar spine into a flatter alignment in which it is more vulnerable to morphological stress damage. 18 , 19 On the other hand, dressage riders use long stirrups that allow the rider to assume an upright position. In this way, lumbar lordosis remains in a natural

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Marie Lund Ohlsson, Jonas Danvind and L. Joakim Holmberg

of the spinal column is an inappropriate posture because it is related to other risk factors. For example, flexion of the spinal column while lifting causes high anterior shear force in the intervertebral discs. 5 Also, sitting causes the pelvis to tilt backward and the spine to flex slightly

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Sajad Bagherian, Khodayar Ghasempoor, Nader Rahnama and Erik A. Wikstrom

injury risk in male football players, 9 female college athletes, 10 and male military candidates. 11 The lateral step-down (LSD) test can be used to rate the quality of movement based on the alignment of the trunk, pelvis, and knee 12 with scores ranging from 0 to 6. 13 The Y balance test (YBT) was

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Benjamin R. Wilson, Kaley E. Robertson, Jeremy M. Burnham, Michael C. Yonz, Mary Lloyd Ireland and Brian Noehren

injury risk. The Y Balance Test requires the subject to be able to control his or her body while maintaining a single-leg stance. Potentially, this requires adequate hip girdle strength to maintain stability of the pelvis and trunk throughout the test. Although relationships have been reported between

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Marissa C. Gradoz, Lauren E. Bauer, Terry L. Grindstaff and Jennifer J. Bagwell

a barrier to further movement 11 or compensation with further movement as determined by the examiner. It was expected that the examiner would detect a capsular end feel. Visual observation was used to detect compensations. If participants demonstrated lateral trunk or pelvis obliquity or trunk

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Christopher M. Saliba, Allison L. Clouthier, Scott C.E. Brandon, Michael J. Rainbow and Kevin J. Deluzio

) Walking speed, m/s 1.25 (0.19) 1.17 (0.18) 1.34 (0.16) A set of sixty-four 12.7-mm diameter retroreflective markers were adhered to participants’ feet, legs, pelvis, torso, head, and arms to define anatomical landmarks and track segment motion. 22 Participants performed 8 overground walking trials across

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Whitney Williams and Noelle M. Selkow

so when imbalances occur, alterations in mechanical alignment and load affect the kinetic chain. For example, muscle tightness of the hamstrings pulls the ipsilateral innominate bone of the pelvis posteriorly, shortening the abdominal muscles. In return, the erector spinae and hip flexors become

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Katie A. Conway, Randall G. Bissette and Jason R. Franz

displacement of the subjects’ pelvis. FCU indicates functional capacity utilized. Reduced mechanical output of the plantarflexor muscles during push-off, and thus reduced propulsive forces, are hallmark biomechanical features of elderly gait as well as gait pathology, such as that following a stroke. 2 , 3

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Danielle Nesbitt, Sergio Molina, Ryan Sacko, Leah E. Robinson, Ali Brian and David Stodden

Categories for Task of Rising from a Supine to a Standing Position (Adapted from Marsala & VanSant, 1998 ; Vansant, 1988a , 1988b ) Upper Extremity Movement Patterns  Level 1 Push and reach to bilateral push. One hand is placed on the support surface beside the pelvis. The other arm reaches across the