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Anners Lerdal, Elin Hannevig Celius and Gunn Pedersen

Background:

Participants who completed a 3-month prescribed individualized exercise program in groups were followed-up prospectively. The aims were to describe the characteristics of the participants, their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and physical fitness at baseline, at completion and at 12-month follow-up, and to identify predictors of HRQoL and physical fitness at completion and at 12-month follow-up.

Methods:

A 1-group follow-up design was used. Data were collected from records of 163 attendees at a municipality-sponsored health center in Norway. HRQoL was measured by self-report using the COOP/WONCA questionnaire. Physical fitness was estimated from the results of a 2-km walk test.

Results:

Of the 163 participants referred to the clinic, 130 (79.8%) were women and 33 were (20.2%) men. Participants who completed were older than those who dropped out. The participants showed clinical improvement in physical fitness and all health-related quality life domains (d > 0.53) at the completion of the program and in physical functioning, mental health, performance of daily activities, overall health, and perceived improved health after 12 months (d > 0.36).

Conclusions:

Participation in group-based prescribed exercise program for 3 months may improve physical fitness and HRQoL significantly in short and long terms.

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Fuzhong Li, Peter Harmer, K. John Fisher, Junheng Xu, Kathleen Fitzgerald and Naruepon Vongjaturapat

The primary objective of this study was to provide preliminary evaluation of the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of a newly developed Tai Chi-based exercise program for older adults with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Using a one-group pretest-posttest design, 17 community-dwelling adults (mean age 71.51 years) with mild to moderate idiopathic PD (Stage I, II, or III on the Hoehn and Yahr scale) and stable medication use completed a 5-day, 90-min/day Tai Chi exercise-evaluation program. Outcome measures included face-to-face exit interviews on appropriateness and safety and physical performance (i.e., 50-ft speed walk, up-and-go, functional reach). At the end of this brief intervention, exercise adherence was 100% and the program was shown to be safe. Exit interviews indicated that the program was well received by all participants with respect to program appropriateness, participant satisfaction and enjoyment, and intentions to continue. Furthermore, a significant pretest-to-posttest change was observed at the end of the 5-day program in all three physical-performance measures (p < .05). The results of this pilot evaluation suggest that Tai Chi is an appropriate physical activity for older adults with PD and might also be useful as a therapeutic exercise modality for improving and maintaining physical function. These preliminary findings warrant further investigation.

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NiCole R. Keith, Daniel O. Clark, Timothy E. Stump, Douglas K. Miller and Christopher M. Callahan

Background:

An accurate physical fitness survey could be useful in research and clinical care.

Purpose:

To estimate the validity and reliability of a Self-Reported Fitness (SRFit) survey; an instrument that estimates muscular fitness, flexibility, cardiovascular endurance, BMI, and body composition (BC) in adults ≥ 40 years of age.

Methods:

201 participants completed the SF-36 Physical Function Subscale, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), Older Adults’ Desire for Physical Competence Scale (Rejeski), the SRFit survey, and the Rikli and Jones Senior Fitness Test. BC, height and weight were measured. SRFit survey items described BC, BMI, and Senior Fitness Test movements. Correlations between the Senior Fitness Test and the SRFit survey assessed concurrent validity. Cronbach’s Alpha measured internal consistency within each SRFit domain. SRFit domain scores were compared with SF-36, IPAQ, and Rejeski survey scores to assess construct validity. Intraclass correlations evaluated test-retest reliability.

Results:

Correlations between SRFit and the Senior Fitness Test domains ranged from 0.35 to 0.79. Cronbach’s Alpha scores were .75 to .85. Correlations between SRFit and other survey scores were –0.23 to 0.72 and in the expected direction. Intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.79 to 0.93. All P-values were 0.001.

Conclusion:

Initial evaluation supports the SRFit survey’s validity and reliability.

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Patrick J. O’Connor, Amanda L. Caravalho, Eric C. Freese and Kirk J. Cureton

Compounds found in the skins of grapes, including catechins, quercetin, and resveratrol, have been added to the diet of rodents and improved run time to exhaustion, fitness, and skeletal-muscle mitochondrial function. It is unknown if such effects occur in humans. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether 6 wk of daily grape consumption influenced maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), work capacity, mood, perceived health status, inflammation, pain, and arm-function responses to a mild eccentric-exercise-induced arm-muscle injury. Forty recreationally active young adults were randomly assigned to consume a grape or placebo drink for 45 consecutive days. Before and after 42 d of supplementation, assessments were made of treadmill-running VO2max, work capacity (treadmill performance time), mood (Profile of Mood States), and perceived health status (SF-36 Health Survey). The day after posttreatment treadmill tests were completed, 18 high-intensity eccentric actions of the nondominant elbow flexors were performed. Arm-muscle inflammation, pain, and function (isometric strength and range of motion) were measured before and on 2 consecutive days after the eccentric exercise. Mixed-model ANOVA showed no significant effect of grape consumption on any of the outcomes. Six weeks of supplemental grape consumption by recreationally active young adults has no effect on VO2max, work capacity, mood, perceived health status, inflammation, pain, or physical-function responses to a mild injury induced by eccentric exercise.

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Kristen M. Beavers, Fang-Chi Hsu, Monica C. Serra, Veronica Yank, Marco Pahor and Barbara J. Nicklas

Observational studies show a relationship between elevated serum uric acid (UA) and better physical performance and muscle function. The purpose of this paper was to determine whether regular participation in an exercise intervention, known to improve physical functioning, would result in increased serum UA. For this study, 424 older adults at risk for physical disability were randomized to participate in either a 12-mo moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) or a successful aging (SA) health education intervention. UA was measured at baseline, 6, and 12 mo (n = 368, 341, and 332, respectively). Baseline UA levels were 6.03 ± 1.52 mg/dl and 5.94 ± 1.55 mg/dl in the PA and SA groups, respectively. The adjusted mean UA at month 12 was 4.8% (0.24 mg/dl) higher in the PA compared with the SA group (p = .028). Compared with a health education intervention, a 1-yr PA intervention results in a modest increase in systemic concentration of UA in older adults at risk for mobility disability.

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James Dziura, Stanislav V. Kasl and Loretta Di Pietro

Background:

It is not clear whether physical activity can exert a protective role on diabetes risk in older people that is independent of the changes in body weight that occur with both aging and disuse. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the relation between current physical activity, 3-year change in body weight, and the subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes in an older cohort.

Methods:

We studied prospectively 2,135 older (≥65 years) persons living in New Haven, CT, between 1982 and 1994. Physical activity was self-reported in 1982 and again in 1985; body weight and diabetes were self-reported annually over 12 years. Data were analyzed using multivariable Cox Proportional Hazards modeling with adjustments for age, sex, race, education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, chronic conditions, physical function, and alcohol intake.

Results:

Although an inverse graded relation was observed between level of activity and rate of diabetes, this dose–response relation did not reach statistical significance. However, older people who reported at least some activity at baseline experienced a significantly lower rate of diabetes between 1983 and 1994 compared to those reporting no activity (RR = 0.55; 95%CI = 0.35, 0.87). When 3-year changes in physical activity and body weight between 1982 and 1985 were added to the model, the relation between physical activity and reduced diabetes risk was unchanged (RR = 0.49; 95%CI = 0.24, 0.99).

Conclusions:

Even in advanced age, physical activity exerts an important and independent role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Continued physician counseling on the health effects of physical activity and referrals to community-based exercise programs should be encouraged among older people.

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Leyre Gravina, Frankie F. Brown, Lee Alexander, James Dick, Gordon Bell, Oliver C. Witard and Stuart D.R. Galloway

Omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) supplementation could promote adaptation to soccer-specific training. We examined the impact of a 4-week period of n-3 FA supplementation during training on adaptations in 1RM knee extensor strength, 20-m sprint speed, vertical jump power, and anaerobic endurance capacity (Yo-Yo test) in competitive soccer players. Twenty six soccer players were randomly assigned to one of two groups: n-3 FA supplementation (n-3 FA; n = 13) or placebo (n = 13). Both groups performed two experimental trial days. Assessments of physical function and respiratory function were conducted pre (PRE) and post (POST) supplementation. Training session intensity, competitive games and nutritional intake were monitored during the 4-week period. No differences were observed in respiratory measurements (FEV1, FVC) between groups. No main effect of treatment was observed for 1RM knee extensor strength, explosive leg power, or 20 m sprint performance, but strength improved as a result of the training period in both groups (p < .05). Yo-Yo test distance improved with training in the n-3 FA group only (p < .01). The mean difference (95% CI) in Yo-Yo test distance completed from PRE to POST was 203 (66–340) m for n-3 FA, and 62 (-94–217) m for placebo, with a moderate effect size (Cohen’s d of 0.52). We conclude that 4 weeks of n-3 FA supplementation does not improve strength, power or speed assessments in competitive soccer players. However, the increase in anaerobic endurance capacity evident only in the n-3 FA treatment group suggests an interaction that requires further study.

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Ozgur Surenkok, Aydan Aytar and Gul Baltaci

Objective:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the initial effects of scapular mobilization (SM) on shoulder range of motion (ROM), scapular upward rotation, pain, and function.

Design:

Pretest–posttest for 3 groups (SM, sham, and control).

Setting:

A double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the initial effect of the SM at a sports physiotherapy clinic.

Participants:

39 subjects (22 women, 17 men; mean age 54.30 ± 14.16 y, age range 20-77 y).

Interventions:

A visual analog scale, ROM, scapular upward rotation, and function were assessed before and just after SM. SM (n = 13) consisted of the application of superoinferior gliding, rotations, and distraction to the scapula. The sham (n = 13) condition replicated the treatment condition except for the hand positioning. The control group (n = 13) did not undergo any physiotherapy and rehabilitation program.

Main Outcome Measures:

Pain severity was assessed with a visual analog scale. Scapular upward rotation was measured with a baseline digital inclinometer. Constant Shoulder Score (CSS) was used to measure shoulder function.

Results:

After SM, we found significant improvements for shoulder ROM, scapular upward rotation, and CSS between pretreatment and posttreatment compared with the sham and control groups. In the sham group, shoulder-ROM values increased or decreased for the shoulder and scapular upward rotation was not changed. Pain, ROM, and physical function of the shoulder were not significantly different in the sham group than in controls (P > .05).

Conclusions:

SM may be a useful manual therapy technique to apply to participants with a painful limitation of the shoulder. SM increases ROM and decreases pain intensity.

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Johanna M. Hoch, Jamie L. Legner, Christina Lorete and Matthew C. Hoch

Context: Documented barriers to implementation of patient-reported outcome instruments (PROs) in practice include administration and scoring time. The Quick Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (Quick-FAAM) was developed to decrease these barriers; however, the clinometric properties in an acute population are unknown. Purpose: To determine the internal consistency, validity, and the floor and ceiling effects of the Quick-FAAM in patients seeking treatment for an acute or subacute ankle or foot health condition. Study Design: Cross-Sectional. Setting: Healthcare facilities.Patients: 50 patients (20.3 ± 2.2 y, 177.9 ± 10.7 cm, 80 ± 19.4 kg) seeking treatment for an acute or subacute ankle or foot condition. Main Outcome Measures: Each patient completed a demographic and health-history questionnaire followed by 5 PROs: the Quick-FAAM, the FAAM-Activities of Daily Living (ADL), FAAM-Sport, the modified Disablement in the Physically Active Scale (mDPA), the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) and the PROMISv1.2 Physical Function (PROMIS-PF). Cronbach alpha was used to determine internal consistency and Spearman’s rank correlations were performed to examine the relationship between the Quick-FAAM and all other outcomes. Results: The Quick-FAAM was very strongly correlated with the FAAM-Total (r = .91, r 2 = .83, P < .001), FAAM-ADL (r = .83, r 2 = .69, P < .001), FAAM-Sport (r = .89, r 2 = .79, P < .001), SF12-Physical Component Score (PCS, r = .74, r 2 = .55, P < .001), mDPA-PCS (r = -.83, r 2 = .69, P < .001) and PROMIS PF (r = .85, r 2 = .72, P < .001). There was a weak or no relationship with the SF12-Mental Component Score (MCS, r = .04, r 2 = .00, P < .001) and the mDPA-MCS (r = -.35, r 2 = .12, P < .001). A total of 8% (n = 4) of the patients scored a 0, and 2% (n = 1) patients scored a 48. Conclusion: The Quick-FAAM demonstrated good convergent and divergent validity along with good internal consistency. There was no evidence of a floor or ceiling effect. Therefore, the Quick-FAAM should be considered for use in practice when determining treatment effectiveness for patients with acute or subacute ankle or foot health conditions. Future research should determine the test-retest reliability and the minimal detectable change of this instrument.

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Katariina Kämppi, Annaleena Aira, Nina Halme, Pauliina Husu, Virpi Inkinen, Laura Joensuu, Sami Kokko, Kaarlo Laine, Kaisu Mononen, Sanna Palomäki, Timo Ståhl, Arja Sääkslahti and Tuija Tammelin

). The data sources were most recent national monitoring and surveys related to PA including the LIITU study (2016), the School Health Promotion (SHP) Study (2017), National Move! monitoring system for physical functioning capacity 2017 and Promotion of PA in municipalities – TEAviisari 2016. Finland