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Carrie S. Baker, Jennifer M. Medina McKeon and Ellen L. Usher

Self-efficacy of balance, a psychological characteristic, may provide information regarding psychological risk factors for lower-extremity injury. Validated instruments to assess self-efficacy of balance do not currently exist. The objective of this study was to determine the face and content validity of the Self-Efficacy of Balance Scale (SEBS) for an adolescent population, as well as content validity, construct and convergent validity of the overall instrument. A series of panelists (n = 11) assessed proposed items for face and content validity for self-efficacy of balance. Construct and convergent validity were assessed with active college individuals (n = 74) and female high school basketball athletes (n = 57). Original items were revised to 21 items. Panelists validated both face and content validity of the SEBS. All items were assessed to have the construct of self-efficacy. Evidence of convergent validity supported the proposed construct of self-efficacy, and was found to be relevant to the physical functioning of a young, active population.

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Guillaume Lamotte, Elizabeth Skender, Miriam R. Rafferty, Fabian J. David, Steve Sadowsky and Daniel M. Corcos

Objective:

This paper reviews the therapeutically beneficial effects of progressive resistance exercise training (PRET) on motor and nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD).

Methods:

First, we perform a systematic review of the literature on the effects of PRET on motor signs of PD, functional outcomes, quality of life, and patient perceived improvement, strength, and cognition in PD. Second, we perform a meta-analysis on the motor section of the UPDRS. Finally, we discuss the results of our review and we identify current knowledge gaps regarding PRET in PD.

Conclusion:

This systematic review synthesizes evidence that PRET can improve strength and motor signs of Parkinsonism in PD and may also be beneficial for physical function in individuals with PD. Further research is needed to explore the effects of PRET on nonmotor symptoms such as depression, cognitive impairment, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and quality of life in individuals with PD.

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Jitka Jancova-Vseteckova, Martin Bobak, Ruzena Kubinova, Nada Capkova, Anne Peasey, Michael G. Marmot and Hynek Pikhart

Background:

The aim was to examine the association of objective measures of physical functioning (PF) with education and material circumstances and the decline in PF with age by socioeconomic position (SEP).

Methods:

In 3,205 subjects (60–75 years) from the Czech Republic, we assessed relationship between PF, SEP, and age. Linear regression was used to assess PF measures and SEP measures.

Results:

Cross-sectional decline in PF by age was similar in all individuals. Differences between SEP groups were similar across age groups, except for the difference in walk speed by material circumstances in men—bigger at older ages (p = .004). Men and women with the highest education were about 2 s faster at the chair rise test than those with the lowest education.

Discussion:

Findings suggest strong educational gradient in PF, an inconsistent role of self-assessed material circumstances, and virtually no interaction of SEP with the cross-sectional decline in PF by age.

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Kym Joanne Price, Brett Ashley Gordon, Kim Gray, Kerri Gergely, Stephen Richard Bird and Amanda Clare Benson

-reported data on physical function from individuals recovering from an acute cardiac event ( Jette & Downing, 1994 ; Pepin, Alexander, & Phillips, 2004 ). In addition, physical capacity appears to be associated with the type of treatment, as patients receiving cardiac surgery typically have lower exercise

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Kimberlee A. Gretebeck, Caroline S. Blaum, Tisha Moore, Roger Brown, Andrzej Galecki, Debra Strasburg, Shu Chen and Neil B. Alexander

participants in the T2DM support and education group. 8 In addition, at 8 years postrandomization, the intervention group reported better physical function and had faster 20- and 400-m walk speeds than the T2DM support and education group. 9 Many older adults with T2DM, including those at high risk for or

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Jaclyn P. Maher and David E. Conroy

assess physical function ( Haley et al., 2002 ). Participants rated the extent to which they had difficulty completing activities of daily living (e.g., walking several blocks, stepping up and down from a curb) on a 1 ( I would have so much difficulty I cannot do it ) to 5 ( I would have no difficulty

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Natasha Reid, Justin W. Keogh, Paul Swinton, Paul A. Gardiner and Timothy R. Henwood

the poor physical function of residents ( de Souto Barreto, 2015 ; Slaughter et al., 2015 ). The European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) defines sarcopenia as the presence of low muscle mass as well as poor muscle strength and/or physical performance ( Cruz-Jentoft et al., 2010

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Aurora de Fátima G.C. Mafra Cabral, Marcelo Medeiros Pinheiro, Charlles H.M. Castro, Marco Túlio De Mello, Sérgio Tufik and Vera Lúcia Szejnfeld

. Potential associations between the questionnaires and other instruments used to measure physical function in this population was also investigated. Methods Participants A total of 123 women aged 60 to 91 years from the medical outpatient clinics at Universidade Federal de São Paulo in the period from 2011

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David Geard, Peter R.J. Reaburn, Amanda L. Rebar and Rylee A. Dionigi

-trained individual masters athletes are perhaps the most physically active and fit subcohort within the older adult population ( Trappe et al., 2013 ). Accordingly, because of their remarkable physical functioning (i.e., as assessed by sports performance) and physiological capacities and characteristics, these types

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Pedro Lopez, Mikel Izquierdo, Regis Radaelli, Graciele Sbruzzi, Rafael Grazioli, Ronei Silveira Pinto and Eduardo Lusa Cadore

) on physical function and incidence of falls in frail patients with dementia ( Cadore, Moneo, et al., 2014 ). Even with a poor physical condition, the exercise intervention has been shown to improve functional outcomes that are affected by physical frailty and sarcopenia. However, the effect of RT as