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Kimberly A. Clevenger, Michael J. Wierenga, Cheryl A. Howe and Karin A. Pfeiffer

that youth spent less than half of recess being active (defined as participating in light to vigorous PA for preschoolers or moderate to vigorous PA [MVPA] for children and adolescents), and activity levels are consistently lower in girls and adolescents than in boys and younger children, respectively

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John J. Reilly, Adrienne R. Hughes, Xanne Janssen, Kathryn R. Hesketh, Sonia Livingstone, Catherine Hill, Ruth Kipping, Catherine E. Draper, Anthony D. Okely and Anne Martin

2018 7 Restructuring the Canadian 2017 GRADE Summary of Findings table by outcome, movement behavior, and age group (infants, toddlers, preschoolers) 23 March–13 June 2018 8 Inclusion of updated WHO systematic reviews to GRADE Summary of Findings table 29 March–13 June 2018 9 Conducting de novo

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Stephanie Mazzucca, Derek Hales, Kelly R. Evenson, Alice Ammerman, Deborah F. Tate, Diane C. Berry and Dianne S. Ward

physical activity, national organizations have recommended amounts of physical activity (light, moderate, and vigorous) that 3- to 5-year-old children should receive during center-based care. 6 , 29 , 30 The National Association for Sport and Physical Education recommends that preschoolers attending

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Stephen Hunter, Valerie Carson, Anna Timperio, Jo Salmon, Alison Carver and Jenny Veitch

activity, time spent outside, and screen time may vary as children get older. In fact, a recent umbrella review found few neighborhood correlates to be consistently associated with physical activity across preschoolers, children, and adolescents. 17 Similar findings have been reported for screen time

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Berit Brandes, Christoph Buck, Marvin N. Wright, Claudia R. Pischke and Mirko Brandes

unstructured PA is an activity that is started by the child itself (eg, playing tag or riding a bike). Furthermore, avoidable sitting times should not exceed 30 minutes per day at this young age. 19 A recent meta-analysis of PA interventions for preschool-aged children found a small to moderate effect on total

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Katherine L. Downing, Jo Salmon, Anna Timperio, Trina Hinkley, Dylan P. Cliff, Anthony D. Okely and Kylie D. Hesketh

a need to investigate the correlates of screen time and sitting as separate behaviors, with the latter assessed objectively using a direct and valid measure of sitting. Existing sedentary behavior correlates research has focused largely on preschool children 15 – 17 and older primary school

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Maike Tietjens, Dennis Dreiskaemper, Till Utesch, Nadja Schott, Lisa M. Barnett and Trina Hinkley

agreement; cf. more detail in the methods-section). Barnett et al. ( 2015 ) showed that children are able to rate their self-perceptions with this method. These questionnaires have been validated for pre-school aged children with a third dimension (active play activities; Barnett et al., 2016 ). Also

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Thanh Nguyen, Joyce Obeid and Brian W. Timmons

The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of short-term power output, heart rate (HR) response during and after a treadmill test, and time to complete a 25-m dash in healthy preschool children. Thirty-two 3- to 5-year-old boys and girls completed two sessions approximately one week apart. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV) were calculated to evaluate reliability. Power output was found to be reliable with ICCs ranging from 0.83 to 0.93 and CVs from 8.1 to 9.7%. Time to complete the 25-m dash was highly reliable (ICC = 0.91, CV = 3.7%). Reliability for HR at submaximal exercise (ICC = 0.28, CV = 18.8%) and HR recovery (ICC = 0.42, CV = 14.0%) was not as strong. These findings should assist in determining appropriate fitness tests for preschoolers.

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Allen W. Burton

The purpose of this experiment was to design a gross-motor task that would quantify the perceptual sensitivity of developmentally disabled (DD) and nonhandicapped (NH) children to the relationship between their personal constraints and the constraints in the environment in a movement context. Three groups of subjects participated in this experiment: 17 DD preschoolers, 25 NH kindergarteners, and 27 NH fourth-graders. The subjects moved through a sequence of four high-jump barriers six times as quickly as possible, negotiating the barriers any way they wanted. They also went through the course without the barriers as quickly as possible to establish a baseline movement time. Relative to their own baseline, the fourth-graders moved through the obstacle course significantly faster than the kindergarteners, while the kindergarteners went through the course significantly faster than the DD preschoolers. In addition, significant differences were found between the NH kindergarteners and DD preschoolers for two sets of perceptual variables: percent error and the slopes of two identified transitions from one mode of locomotion to another. These results and further analyses showed that at least some of the movement problems experienced by DD children can be attributed to perceptual difficulties, and established the potential of the present methodology in examining perceptual sensitivity in a movement context in DD and NH children.

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Kimberley D. Lakes, Maryam M. Abdullah, Julie Youssef, Joseph H. Donnelly, Candice Taylor-Lucas, Wendy A. Goldberg, Dan Cooper and Shlomit Radom-Aizik

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to examine a new tool (PPPAS = Parent Perceptions of Physical Activity Scale-Preschool) developed to study parental perceptions of physical activity (PA) among parents of toddler and preschool age children.

Method:

143 children (mean age 31.65 months; 75% male) and their parents were recruited from a neurodevelopmental clinic. Parents completed questionnaires, and both a psychologist and a physician evaluated the children. Eighty-three percent of the children received a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder; 20% of the children had a BMI > 85th percentile. Analyses were conducted to evaluate the reliability, concurrent validity, discriminant validity, and predictive validity of PPPAS scores.

Results:

Results supported a two-factor structure: Perceptions of the Benefits of PA and the Barriers to PA. The internal consistency of scores was good for both PPPAS subscales, derived from the two factors. Parent perceptions of barriers to PA were significantly correlated with delays in overall adaptive functioning, daily living skills, socialization, and motor skills. When a child’s motor skills were delayed, parents were less likely to believe PA was beneficial and perceived more barriers to PA. Parent perceptions of barriers to PA predicted parent-reported weekly unstructured PA and ratings of how physically active their child was compared with other children.

Conclusion:

We present the PPPAS-Preschool for use in pediatric exercise research and discuss potential applications for the study of parent perceptions of PA in young children.