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Sarah Kölling, Rob Duffield, Daniel Erlacher, Ranel Venter and Shona L. Halson

behind this challenging factor and can be addressed with sleep hygiene strategies (see below). Travel and Jet Lag Given the competition demands of most professional sports, regular short-haul (domestic) and long-haul (international) travel is a necessity. While competition itself is a factor in disturbed

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Chadron Hazelbaker and Matthew Martin

Revenues $3 million $1.7 million Total Sport Expenses $3.7 million $2.1 million Title IX In the United States, the late 1950s and early 1960s was a period of great social change. In the wake of athletes like Jackie Robinson and Althea Gibson breaking color barriers in American professional sports, the

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Angela Coppola, Thomas Curran, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Luc Martin and Kathleen Wilson

empirically based leadership development programs in sport. Fransen, K., Haslam, S.A., Mallet, C.J., Steffens, N.K., Peters, K., & Boen, F. (2017). Is perceived athlete leadership quality related to team effectiveness? A comparison of three professional sports teams. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport

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Alessandra Madia Mantovani, Manoel Carlos Spiguel de Lima, Luis Alberto Gobbo, Enio Ricardo Vaz Ronque, Marcelo Romanzini, Bruna Camilo Turi-Lynch, Jamile Sanches Codogno and Rômulo Araújo Fernandes

effects on bone matrix. The engagement in nonprofessional sports might be responsible for the lower biomechanical strain on the skeleton than training routines observed in professional sports, leading to lower potential to stimulate the male skeleton. Among women, it is important to stimulate additional

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Thilo Kunkel, Daniel C. Funk and Daniel Lock

]). Independent of their ownership structure, leagues provide a tournament in which teams compete, govern all involved parties (e.g., players and sponsors), and oversee strategic management and marketing directions, such as rule changes and promotions. As a result, “professional sports teams cannot compete

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Jacqueline McDowell, Yung-Kuei Huang and Arran Caza

effective leadership. These models make a significant contribution to sport leadership literature, but given the numerous ethical quandaries in amateur and professional sports (e.g., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill academic scandal, steroid use in Major League Baseball, Olympic blood doping

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Jeffrey Martin

), golf clubs ( Zuckerman, 2001 ), cardiac rehabilitation centers ( Taylor, 1991 ), Olympic training centers ( Murphy, 1996 ), sports medicine clinics ( Petitpas, 1998 ), professional sports organizations ( Dunlap, 1999 ; Gardner, 2001 ), health and wellness settings ( Smith et al., 2002 ), or other

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Rebecca M. Achen, John Kaczorowski, Trisha Horsmann and Alanda Ketzler

.1016/j.smr.2014.11.001 Funk , D.C. , & Pastore , D.L. ( 2000 ). Equating attitudes to allegiance: The usefulness of selected attitudinal information in segmenting loyalty to professional sports teams . Sport Marketing Quarterly, 9 , 175 – 184 . Garson , G.D. ( 2013 ). Hierarchical linear

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Samuel Ryan, Emidio Pacecca, Jye Tebble, Joel Hocking, Thomas Kempton and Aaron J. Coutts

the CV or TE established via test–retest reliability. Mean, SD, and 90% confidence intervals were also calculated. 12 SNRs were assessed as “poor” if <1.0, “acceptable” if 1.0 to 1.5, and “good” if >1.5, adapted from research in other professional sports. 22 , 29 Results Test–retest reliability

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Paula B. Debien, Marcelly Mancini, Danilo R. Coimbra, Daniel G.S. de Freitas, Renato Miranda and Maurício G. Bara Filho

jump tests were performed before the training sessions, it is possible that the training load of the day before could have influenced the jump performance. 37 This highlights the difficulties in assessing and intervening in the training routine of professional sports teams and explains the few