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Corall S. Hjert and Cynthia J. Wright

after FR application. Characteristics of the included studies are presented in Table  1 . Table 1 Characteristics of Included Studies Authors Characteristics MacDonald et al. 2 Pearcey et al. 3 Fleckenstein et al. 9 Laffaye et al. 13 Study title Foam Rolling as a Recovery Tool after an Intense Bout of

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Matteo Bonato, Antonio La Torre, Marina Saresella, Ivana Marventano, Giampiero Merati, Giuseppe Banfi and Jacopo A. Vitale

-intensity work or inactivity that allow partial but often not full recovery. 3 There are numerous ways to prescribe HIIT by varying length of rest periods and number of repetitions. Generally, HIIT protocols maximally stress oxygen transportation and utilization to provide an effective stimulus for increasing

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Brett S. Pexa, Eric D. Ryan, Elizabeth E. Hibberd, Elizabeth Teel, Terri Jo Rucinski and Joseph B. Myers

’s posterior shoulder to a high amount of eccentric muscle activity and causes significant trauma to the musculoskeletal system. Despite acute changes in CSA, 19 , 22 range of motion, 7 – 9 and glenohumeral strength, 23 there is still limited evidence defining the time to recovery of these variables

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Ned Brophy-Williams, Matthew W. Driller, Cecilia M. Kitic, James W. Fell and Shona L. Halson

Purpose:

To determine the effect of wearing compression socks between repeated running bouts on perceptual, physiological, and performance-based parameters.

Methods:

Twelve well-trained male runners (mean ± SD 5-km time 19:24 ± 1:19 [min:s]) recorded their perceptions of the efficacy of compression socks for recovery before completion of 2 experimental sessions. Each session consisted of two 5-km running time trials (TT1 and TT2) on a treadmill, with a 1-h recovery period between. In a randomized crossover design, 1 session required participants to wear compression socks during the recovery period, and no compression socks were worn between TTs in the other session (control).

Results:

Running performance between TT1 and TT2 for runners wearing compression socks was similar between TTs (mean Δ 5.3 ± 20.7 s, d = 0.07, P = .20), whereas for control runners, performance significantly decreased in the second TT (mean Δ 15.9 ± 13.3 s, d = 0.19, P < .01). When grouped by perception of efficacy for compression socks, participants with strong beliefs (n = 7) experienced improved subsequent running performance with compression socks (mean Δ –3.6 ± 19.2 s, d = 0.05, P = .32) compared with those with neutral or negative perceptions (n = 5; mean Δ 17.9 ± 17.0 s, d = 0.19, P = .04). Cross-sectional area of the calf and muscle soreness were significantly reduced during the recovery period with the use of compression socks (P < .01), whereas ratings of fatigue showed no difference between conditions.

Conclusions:

Wearing compression socks between repeated running bouts can aid recovery and subsequent performance. Furthermore, subsequent exercise performance may be even further enhanced when athletes believe in the efficacy of compression socks to assist in recovery between exercise bouts.

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Jordan L. Fox, Aaron T. Scanlan, Robert Stanton, Cody J. O’Grady and Charli Sargent

Semiprofessional basketball players are exposed to intense physical and physiological demands during training and games. 1 Given the extensive demands imposed on players across the season, managing player workload and recovery is essential in promoting favorable adaptations to increase the

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Gavriil G. Arsoniadis, Gregory C. Bogdanis, Gerasimos Terzis and Argyris G. Toubekis

exhaustion was reduced over a week of concurrent strength and endurance training, but the energy cost of submaximal exercise was unchanged 9 hours after the strength training sessions. 11 Strength training characteristics and subsequent endurance training intensity as well as the recovery period may be

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Benjamin G. Serpell, Barry G. Horgan, Carmen M.E. Colomer, Byron Field, Shona L. Halson and Christian J. Cook

Sleep is regarded as one of the best recovery strategies available to elite athletes, with sleep playing an important role in performance, cognitive function, mood, illness, and metabolism. 1 Evidence suggests that athletes may have poorer sleep quality and quantity than the general population, 2

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Jeffrey J. Zachwieja, David L. Costill and William J. Fink

To determine the effect of carbohydrate feeding on muscle glycogen resynthesis, 8 male cyclists pedaled for 2 hrs on a cycle ergometer at 70% of VO2max while consuming either a 10% carbohydrate solution (CHO) or a nonnutritive sweet placebo (No CHO). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis prior to, immediately postexercise, and at 2,4, and 24 hrs of recovery. Blood samples were taken before and at the end of exercise, and at specified times during recovery. During both trials food intake was withheld for the first 2 hrs of recovery, but at 2 hrs postexercise a 24% carbohydrate solution was ingested. The rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis during the first 2 hrs of recovery was similar for the CHO and No CHO trials. Following ingestion of the 24% carbohydrate supplement, the rates of muscle glycogen resynthesis increased similarly in both trials. These similar rates of resynthesis following ingestion of the carbohydrate supplement were obtained despite significantly greater serum glucose and insulin levels during the No CHO trial. The results indicate that the carbohydrate feedings taken during exercise had little effect on postexercise muscle glycogen resynthesis.

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Daniel J. Davies, Kenneth S. Graham and Chin Moi Chow

Purpose:

The use of daytime napping as a recovery tool following exercise is virtually unexplored. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of daytime nap sleep following endurance training in an athletic population, and to appraise the optimal circadian timing of the nap and the time interval between training and the nap.

Methods:

Six physically trained male subjects (22.5 ± 2.4 y) performed four separate standardized 90-min endurance training sessions followed by a 90-min daytime nap either 1 or 2 h after training (time interval), commencing at either 10:30 or 11:30 (circadian timing). During the nap, sleep was monitored using polysomnography. Subjective measurements of sleep quality, alertness and preparedness to train following a nap were recorded using a visual analog scale.

Results:

The duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) was significantly greater during the 11:30 naps (13.7 ± 9.0 min) compared with the 10:30 naps (6.9 ± 8.8 min) (P = .049). There was no significant difference in SWS duration between a 1-h (10.6 ± 10.2 min) or 2-h (10.0 ± 9.0 min) time interval between training and the nap (P = .82). No other sleep variables differed significantly according to circadian timing or time interval.

Conclusion:

Recovery naps commenced later in the morning contain more SWS than earlier naps. The data imply that daytime naps have a potential role as a valuable recovery tool following endurance exercise, given the suggested energy restorative functions of SWS.

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Jonathan Magee, Ramón Spaaij and Ruth Jeanes

This paper builds on the concept of mental health recovery to critically examine three football projects in the United Kingdom and their effects on the recovery process. Drawing on qualitative research on the lived experiences of mental health clients and service providers across the three projects, we explore the role of football in relation to three components of recovery: engagement, stigma, and social isolation. The findings indicate how the projects facilitated increased client engagement, peer supports, and the transformation of self-stigma. The perception of football as an alternative setting away from the clinical environment was an important factor in this regard. Yet, the results also reveal major limitations, including the narrow, individualistic conceptualization of both recovery and stigma within the projects, the reliance on a biomedical model of mental illness, and the potentially adverse consequences of using football in mental health interventions.