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Jakob Tarp, Anna Bugge, Niels Christian Møller, Heidi Klakk, Christina Trifonov Rexen, Anders Grøntved and Niels Wedderkopp

resting metabolic rate and/or increased capacity for glucose and free fatty acid clearance may represent mechanisms explaining beneficial metabolic adaptations with higher muscle fitness. 36 Another potential mechanism, supported by the removal of most of the statistically significant associations when

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Ida A. Heikura, Arja L.T. Uusitalo, Trent Stellingwerff, Dan Bergland, Antti A. Mero and Louise M. Burke

function (blood reproductive and metabolic hormones, BMD, and resting metabolic rate) may provide a better representation of an individual’s longer term EA, rather than just a snapshot, and may be a more sensitive way to diagnose low EA. Indeed, based on the current cross-sectional analysis, it appears

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Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips

calories too severely, particularly below 30 kcal/kg fat-free mass, which would be roughly equivalent to resting metabolic rate for most people ( Loucks et al., 2011 ). For example, in natural male body builders, prolonged low energy availability can result in loss of LBM, hormonal imbalances

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Rachel Massie, James Smallcombe and Keith Tolfrey

suggests that exercise-induced weight loss is complex with large interindividual variability after completing an exercise program ( 27 ). Further research focusing on compensatory changes related to free-living EE, resting metabolic rate, or lean mass, in addition to EI, has also been suggested ( 42

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Sylvia E. Badon, Alyson J. Littman, K.C. Gary Chan, Michelle A. Williams and Daniel A. Enquobahrie

was calculated by multiplying each individual walking activity duration by its corresponding MET value, a measure of energy expenditure of a physical activity defined as the ratio of metabolic rate during a specific activity to a reference resting metabolic rate of 3.5 mL O 2 /kg/min. 31 Individual

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per se, or failure to optimally integrate the periodization of exercise, nutrition, and recovery. Low energy availability occurs where nutritional intake is not sufficient to cover expenditure from training and resting metabolic rate. In this situation the body goes into energy saving mode, including

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Petter Fagerberg

, lowered insulin, triiodothyronine (T3), growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), leptin, glucose, and increases in cortisol and β-hydroxybutyrate production ( Loucks & Thuma, 2003 )—all at EA < 30 kcal/kg FFM, which closely resembles resting metabolic rate ( Loucks et al., 2011 ). These

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Patrick Abi Nader, Lina Majed, Susan Sayegh, Lama Mattar, Ruba Hadla, Marie Claire Chamieh, Carla Habib Mourad, Elie-Jacques Fares, Zeina Hawa and Mathieu Bélanger

Active play involves unstructured social or solitary playful activities occurring intermittently but significantly above the resting metabolic rate. 5 It is benchmarked by the percent of children and youth who engage in unorganized active play for more than 2 hours a day and percent of children and