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Leigh Ann Ganzar, Nalini Ranjit, Debra Saxton and Deanna M. Hoelscher

adolescents. 25 School-level confounders included in this study were percent economically disadvantaged at the school level, measured by the percent eligible for free and reduced lunch as reported using publicly available data from the Texas Education Agency and geographic location of the school (rural

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Jieling Chen, Emily Joy Nicklett, Yaping He and Vivian W.Q. Lou

2011 baseline survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. The nationwide study used multistage probability sampling to select households with members aged 45 years or older, representing both urban and rural settings in China ( Zhao, Hu, Smith, Strauss, & Yang, 2014 ). Ethical

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Gina M. McCaskill, Olivio J. Clay, Peng Li, Richard E. Kennedy, Kathryn L. Burgio and Cynthia J. Brown

-dwelling older adults Alabama. Briefly, participants were a stratified random sample ( N  = 1,000) of community-dwelling adults 65 years and older. The sample was balanced based on race, sex, and residence (rural vs. urban). Participants were selected from Medicare lists of beneficiaries from five counties in

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Simone A. Tomaz, Anthony D. Okely, Alastair van Heerden, Khanya Vilakazi, Marie-Louise Samuels and Catherine E. Draper

parents to do, to put their children on their tummies.” —Translator on behalf of CHW, rural setting CHWs encourage parents not only to let their babies sleep on the tummy for many perceived medical benefits (such as development for premature babies, sleep length), but also to promote activity when the

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Chalchisa Abdeta, Zelalem Teklemariam, Alem Deksisa and Endashew Abera

children and youth (17% urban & 39% rural) meet 60 minutes moderate physical activity every day. Organized Sport Participation C Almost 50% of children and youth are participating in school athletics, handball, volleyball and football competitions at all levels for several times in a year. Active Play B

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Jasmin Bhawra, Priyanka Chopra, Ranjani Harish, Anjana Mohan, Krishnaveni V. Ghattu, Kumaran Kalyanaraman and Tarun R. Katapally

youth in India. Figure 1 —India’s 2018 Report Card cover. Table 1 Grades and Rationales for India’s 2018 Report Card Indicators Grades Rationale Overall Physical Activity D Approximately 25% of children and youth accumulate ≥ 60 minutes of MVPA daily. It is expected that children and youth from rural

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Carmen D. Harris, Prabasaj Paul, Xingyou Zhang and Janet E. Fulton


Fewer than 30% of U.S. youth meet the recommendation to be active > 60 minutes/day. Access to parks may encourage higher levels of physical activity.


To examine differences in park access among U.S. school-age youth, by demographic characteristics and urbanicity of block group.


Park data from 2012 were obtained from TomTom, Incorporated. Population data were obtained from the 2010 U.S. Census and American Community Survey 2006–2010. Using a park access score for each block group based on the number of national, state or local parks within one-half mile, we examined park access among youth by majority race/ethnicity, median household income, median education, and urbanicity of block groups.


Overall, 61.3% of school-age youth had park access—64.3% in urban, 36.5% in large rural, 37.8% in small rural, and 35.8% in isolated block groups. Park access was higher among youth in block groups with higher median household income and higher median education.


Urban youth are more likely to have park access. However, park access also varies by race/ethnicity, median education, and median household. Considering both the demographics and urbanicity may lead to better characterization of park access and its association with physical activity among youth.

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Vernon M. Grant, Emily J. Tomayko, Ronald J. Prince, Kate Cronin and Alexandra Adams

tribal communities nationwide. Participants included 450 adult and child (aged 2–5 y) dyads from rural and urban communities. The study sample is noteworthy as few studies have included both urban- and rural-based families concurrently. Moreover, the included communities spanned 5 states and ranged in

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Taru Manyanga, Nyaradzai E. Munambah, Carol B. Mahachi, Daga Makaza, Tholumusa F. Mlalazi, Vincent Masocha, Paul Makoni, Fortunate Sithole, Bhekuzulu Khumalo, Sipho H. Rutsate and Tonderayi M. Matsungo

there was some variation between boys and girls as well as between rural and urban areas. The proportion of boys walking to and from school was lower (79%) compared with girls (82%). Use of active transport was lower (78%) among urban and higher (88%) among rural school children and youth. Sedentary

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Dawn M. Tladi, Malebogo Monnaatsie, Sheila Shaibu, Gaonyadiwe Sinombe, Gaonyadiwe G. Mokone, Lesego Gabaitiri, Leapetswe Malete and Hubona Omphile

expert opinion. Approximately 20% of the children play actively, mostly children living in rural areas. No empirical evidence is available that addresses active play, let alone the specifics of active play (e.g., frequency, duration, type). Active Transportation C 49% of 13-15 year olds show that they